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Jean Sibelius
Jean Sibelius
Jean Sibelius
(/sɪˈbeɪliəs/;[1]  Swedish pronunciation (help·info)), born Johan Julius Christian Sibelius[2] (8 December 1865 – 20 September 1957), was a Finnish composer and violinist of the late Romantic and early-modern periods. He is widely recognized as his country's greatest composer and, through his music, is often credited with having helped Finland to develop a national identity during its struggle for independence from Russia. The core of his oeuvre is his set of seven symphonies which, like his other major works, continue to be performed and recorded in his home country and internationally. His other best-known compositions are Finlandia, the Karelia
Karelia
Suite, Valse triste, the Violin Concerto, the choral symphony Kullervo, and The Swan of Tuonela
The Swan of Tuonela
(from the Lemminkäinen Suite)
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Incidental Music
Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program, video game, film, or some other presentation form that is not primarily musical. The term is less frequently applied to film music, with such music being referred to instead as the "film score" or "soundtrack". Incidental music is often "background" music, and is intended to add atmosphere to the action. It may take the form of something as simple as a low, ominous tone suggesting an impending startling event or to enhance the depiction of a story-advancing sequence. It may also include pieces such as overtures, music played during scene changes, or at the end of an act, immediately preceding an interlude, as was customary with several nineteenth-century plays
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Ferdinand David (musician)
Ferdinand David (German: [ˈdaːvɪt]; 19 June 1810 – 18 July 1873)[1] was a German virtuoso violinist and composer.Contents1 Biography 2 Compositions 3 Editions and arrangements 4 Trivia 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Born in the same house in Hamburg
Hamburg
where Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
had been born the previous year,[2] David was raised Jewish but later converted to Protestant Christianity. David was a pupil of Louis Spohr
Louis Spohr
and Moritz Hauptmann
Moritz Hauptmann
from 1823 to 1824 and in 1826 became a violinist at Königstädtischen Theater in Berlin. In 1829 he was the first violinist of Baron Carl Gotthard von Liphardt's (father of Karl Eduard von Liphart) string quartet in Dorpat and he undertook concert tours in Riga, Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and Moscow
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Freemasonry
Freemasonry
Freemasonry
or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman
Journeyman
or fellow (now called Fellowcraft), and Master Mason. These are the degrees offered by Craft (or Blue Lodge) Freemasonry. Members of these organisations are known as Freemasons or Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, and are usually administered by different bodies than the craft degrees. The basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry
Freemasonry
is the Lodge
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Piano Music
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy
Italy
by Bartolomeo Cristofori
Bartolomeo Cristofori
around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard,[1] which is a row of keys (small levers) that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. The word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte[2] and fortepiano
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Chamber Music
Chamber music
Chamber music
is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room. Most broadly, it includes any art music that is performed by a small number of performers, with one performer to a part (in contrast to orchestral music, in which each string part is played by a number of performers). However, by convention, it usually does not include solo instrument performances. Because of its intimate nature, chamber music has been described as "the music of friends".[1] For more than 100 years, chamber music was played primarily by amateur musicians in their homes, and even today, when chamber music performance has migrated from the home to the concert hall, many musicians, amateur and professional, still play chamber music for their own pleasure
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Psychiatrist
A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders
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Euro
The single currency[1]local namesЕвро (Bulgarian) Eυρώ (Greek) Euró (Hungarian) Eiro (Latvian) Euras (Lithuanian) Ewro (Maltese) Evro (Slovene)Banknotes €5, €10, €20, €50, €100, €200, €500 (until the end of 2018)Coins 1c, 2c, 5c, 10c, 20c, 50c, €1, €2DemographicsOfficial user(s) Eurozone
Eurozone
(19) Austria  Belgium  Cyprus[note 1]  Estonia  Finland  France[note 2]  Germany  Greece  Ireland  Italy[note 3]  Latvia  Lithuania  Luxembourg  Malta  Netherlands[n
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Typhoid
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi
Salmonella typhi
that causes symptoms.[3] Symptoms may vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure.[1][2] Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days.[1] Weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, and headaches also commonly occur.[2][6]
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National Epic
A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. National epics frequently recount the origin of a nation, a part of its history, or a crucial event in the development of national identity such as other national symbols. In a broader sense, a national epic may simply be an epic in the national language which the people or government of that nation are particularly proud of. It is distinct from a pan-national epic which is taken as representative of a larger cultural or linguistic group than a nation or a nation-state.Contents1 History 2 Poetic epics2.1 Africa 2.2 Americas 2.3 Asia 2.4 Europe 2.5 Oceania3 Prose epics 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]First page of Beowulf
Beowulf
in Cotton Vitellius A
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Violin Concerto (Mendelssohn)
Felix Mendelssohn's Violin
Violin
Concerto
Concerto
in E minor, Op. 64, is his last large orchestral work. It forms an important part of the violin repertoire and is one of the most popular and most frequently performed violin concertos in history.[1][2][3] A typical performance lasts just under half an hour. Mendelssohn originally proposed the idea of the violin concerto to Ferdinand David, a close friend and then concertmaster of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra. Although conceived in 1838, the work took another six years to complete and was not premiered until 1845. During this time, Mendelssohn maintained a regular correspondence with David, who gave him many suggestions
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Loviisa
Loviisa
Loviisa
(Finnish pronunciation: [ˈloviːsa]; Swedish: Lovisa Swedish pronunciation: [luvˈiːsa]) is a municipality and town of 15,140 inhabitants (31 August 2017)[2] on the southern coast of Finland. About 43 per cent of the population is Swedish-speaking.[6] The municipality covers an area of 1,751.52 square kilometres (676.27 sq mi) of which 931.92 km2 (359.82 sq mi) is water.[1] The population density is 18.47 inhabitants per square kilometre (47.8/sq mi). The neighboring municipalities of Liljendal, Pernå
Pernå
and Ruotsinpyhtää
Ruotsinpyhtää
were consolidated with Loviisa
Loviisa
on January 1, 2010. Loviisa
Loviisa
was founded in 1745, as a border fortress against Russia. Most of the fortifications have been preserved
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Eastern Uusimaa
Eastern Uusimaa
Uusimaa
(Finnish: Itä-Uusimaa; Swedish: Östra Nyland) was a region in Finland, until it was consolidated with the region of Uusimaa
Uusimaa
on January 1, 2011.[1] It bordered the regions Uusimaa, Päijänne Tavastia
Päijänne Tavastia
and Kymenlaakso.Contents1 Historical provinces 2 Municipalities 3 Notes 4 External linksHistorical provinces[edit] For history, geography, and culture, see Uusimaa
Uusimaa
(historical province). Municipalities[edit] Main article: Municipalities of Eastern Uusimaa The region of Eastern Uusimaa
Uusimaa
was made up of seven municipalities, of which two had city status (marked in bold). The first name is the name of the municipality in the majority (or sole) language of the municipality
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Jean (male Given Name)
On the European continent and in all French-speaking countries, Jean, pronounced [ʒɑ̃], is a male name derived from the Old French
Old French
Jehan. The female equivalent is Jeanne, pronounced [ʒan], and derives from the Old French
Old French
Jehanne. Both names derive from the Latin
Latin
name Johannes, itself from the Koine Greek
Koine Greek
name Ιωαννης Ioannes, the name used for various New Testament
New Testament
characters, most notably John the Baptist
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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National Identity
National identity
National identity
is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.[1][2] It is the sense of a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, language and politics.[3] National identity
National identity
may refer to the subjective feeling one shares with a group of people about a nation, regardless of one's legal citizenship status.[4] National identity
National identity
is viewed in psychological terms as "an awareness of difference", a "feeling and recognition of 'we' and 'they'".[5] The expression of one's national identity seen in a positive light is patriotism which is characterized by national pride and positive emotion of love for one's country
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