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Jean Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(/ruːˈsoʊ/;[1] French: [ʒɑ̃ʒak ʁuso]; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century, mainly active in France. His political philosophy influenced the Enlightenment across Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the overall development of modern political and educational thought. Rousseau's novel Emile, or On Education
Education
is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau (director)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(December 16, 1946 – November 5, 2014) was a Belgian absurdist independent film director. He was born in Souvret, Belgium
Belgium
(Courcelles) and died in Montigny-le-Tilleul. He shot his films with very small budgets (€2000 to 2500 per film) and used unknown or non-professional actors.[1] He called himself the director of the absurd and always fiercely protected his anonymity by masking his face during his public appearances.[2][3] He shot over 50 films making him one of Belgium's most prolific film directors.[3][4] His life was supposed to be the subject of a Yann Moix
Yann Moix
film, called Palme d'or, starring Benoît Poelvoorde.[5] The project was not filmed. Moix did make, without Poelvoorde, the disastrous Cinéman (fr)
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Étienne Bonnot De Condillac
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (/ˈɛtiˌɛn ˈbɒnoʊ də ˈkɒndiˌæk/; French: [bɔno də kɔ̃dijak]; 30 September 1714[2] – 3 August 1780) was a French philosopher and epistemologist, who studied in such areas as psychology and the philosophy of the mind.Contents1 Biography 2 Work 3 Language 4 Economics 5 History 6 Legacy 7 Works 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksBiography[edit] He was born at Grenoble into a legal family, the youngest of three brothers. His two older brothers Jean and Gabriel took names associated with one of the family's properties at Mably, Loire, and were each known as "Bonnot de Mably". Étienne identified with another property at Condillac, Drôme, was known as "Bonnot de Condillac". Like his brother Gabriel, Condillac took holy orders (1733–1740) at Saint-Sulpice church in Paris
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Plato
Plato
Plato
(/ˈpleɪtoʊ/;[a][1] Greek: Πλάτων[a] Plátōn, pronounced [plá.tɔːn] in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423[b] – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece
Classical Greece
and the founder of the Academy
Academy
in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world
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Aristotle
Aristotle
Aristotle
(/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/;[3] Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; 384–322 BC)[n 1] was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece. Along with Plato, Aristotle
Aristotle
is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", which inherited almost its entire lexicon from his teachings, including problems and methods of inquiry, so influencing almost all forms of knowledge. Little is known for certain about his life. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle
Aristotle
was a child, and he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy
Plato's Academy
in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c
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Michel De Montaigne
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (/mɒnˈteɪn/;[3] French: [miʃɛl ekɛm də mɔ̃tɛɲ]; 28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre. His work is noted for its merging of casual anecdotes[4] and autobiography with serious intellectual insight; his massive volume Essais
Essais
contains some of the most influential essays ever written. Montaigne had a direct influence on Western writers, including Francis Bacon, René Descartes,[5] Blaise Pascal, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Albert Hirschman, William Hazlitt,[6] Ralph Waldo Emerson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Stefan Zweig, Eric Hoffer,[7] Isaac Asimov, and possibly on the later works of William Shakespeare. In his own lifetime, Montaigne was admired more as a statesman than as an author
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René Descartes
René Descartes
René Descartes
(/ˈdeɪˌkɑːrt/;[9] French: [ʁəne dekaʁt]; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian";[10] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy
Western philosophy
is a response to his writings,[11][12] which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–49) of his life in the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
and the Stadtholder
Stadtholder
of the United Provinces
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Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius
(/ˈɡroʊʃiəs/; 10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot (Dutch: [ˈɦœyɣ də ɣroːt]) or Hugo de Groot (Dutch: [ˈɦyɣoː də ɣroːt]), was a Dutch jurist. Along with the earlier works of Francisco de Vitoria and Alberico Gentili, Grotius laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. A teenage intellectual prodigy, he was imprisoned for his involvement in the intra- Calvinist
Calvinist
disputes of the Dutch Republic, but escaped hidden in a chest of books
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Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
(/hɒbz/; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
of Malmesbury,[2] was an English philosopher who is con
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Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
Spinoza
(/bəˈruːk spɪˈnoʊzə/;[6] Dutch: [baːˈrux spɪˈnoːzaː]; born Benedito de Espinosa, Portuguese: [bɨnɨˈðitu ðɨ ʃpiˈnɔzɐ]; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.[5] By laying the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment[7] and modern biblical criticism,[8] including modern conceptions of the self and the universe,[9] he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy.[10] Along with René Descartes, Spinoza
Spinoza
was a leading philosophical figure of the Dutch Golden Age. Spinoza's given name, which means "Blessed", varies among different languages. In Hebrew, it is written ברוך שפינוזה‬. His Portuguese name is Benedito "Bento" de Espinosa
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Samuel Von Pufendorf
Freiherr
Freiherr
Samuel von Pufendorf
Samuel von Pufendorf
(8 January 1632 – 13 October 1694) was a German jurist, political philosopher, economist and historian. He was born Samuel Pufendor and ennobled in 1684; he was made a baron by Charles XI of Sweden
Charles XI of Sweden
a few months before his death at age 62. Among his achievements are his commentaries and revisions of the natural law theories of Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
and Hugo Grotius. Pufendorf was familiar to American political writers such as Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and Thomas Jefferson. His political concepts are part of the cultural background of the American Revolution. Pufendorf is seen as an important precursor of Enlightenment in Germany
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Jean Le Rond D'Alembert
Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (/ˌdæləmˈbɛər/;[1] French: [ʒɑ̃ batist lə ʁɔ̃ dalɑ̃bɛːʁ]; 16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist. Until 1759 he was also co-editor with Denis Diderot
Denis Diderot
of the Encyclopédie. D'Alembert's formula for obtaining solutions to the wave equation is named after him.[2][3][4] The wave equation is sometimes referred to as d'Alembert's equation.Contents1 Early years 2 Studies and adult life 3 Career 4 Music theories 5 Personal life 6 Death 7 Legacy 8 Fictional portrayal 9 List of works 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External linksEarly years[edit] Born in Paris, d'Alembert was the natural son of the writer Claudine Guérin de Tencin and the chevalier Louis-Camus Destouches, an artillery officer. Destouches was abroad at the time of d'Alembert's birth
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Positive Liberty
Positive liberty is the possession of the capacity to act upon one's free will, as opposed to negative liberty, which is freedom from external restraint on one's actions.[1] A concept of positive liberty may also include freedom from internal constraints.[2] The concepts of structure and agency are central to the concept of positive liberty because in order to be free, a person should be free from inhibitions of the social structure in carrying out their free will. Structurally, classism, sexism, ageism and racism can inhibit a person's freedom
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Louise D'Épinay
Louise Florence Pétronille Tardieu d'Esclavelles d'Épinay (11 March 1726 – 17 April 1783), better known as Mme. d'Épinay,[1][2] was a French writer, a saloniste and woman of fashion, known on account of her liaisons with Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who gives unflattering reports of her in his Confessions, as well as her acquaintanceship with Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Baron d'Holbach and other French men of letters during the Enlightenment. She was also one of many women referenced in Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex as an example of noble expansion of women's rights during the 18th century.Contents1 Early life 2 Liaisons 3 L'Histoire de Madame de Montbrillant 4 Other works 5 Issue 6 See also 7 Notes 8 SourcesEarly life[edit] Louise d'Épinay was born at the fortress of Valenciennes, where her father, Tardieu d'Esclavelles, a brigadier of infantry, was commanding officer
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Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
(/kænt/;[8] German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.[9] Kant argues that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment, that space and time are forms of human sensibility, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is independent of humanity's concepts of it. Kant took himself to have effected a "Copernican revolution" in philosophy, akin to Copernicus' reversal of the age-old belief that the sun revolves around the earth
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Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (French: [mak.si.mi.ljɛ̃ fʁɑ̃.swa ma.ʁi i.zi.dɔʁ də ʁɔ.bɛs.pjɛʁ]; 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the Reign of Terror. As a member of the Estates-General, the Constituent Assembly
Constituent Assembly
and the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club, Robespierre was an outspoken advocate for the poor and for democratic institutions. He campaigned for universal male suffrage in France, price controls on basic food commodities and the abolition of slavery in the French colonies
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