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Jazz-rock
Jazz
Jazz
fusion (also known as fusion)[1] is a musical genre that developed in the late 1960s when musicians combined aspects of jazz harmony and improvisation with styles such as funk, rock, rhythm and blues, and Latin jazz. During this time many jazz musicians began experimenting with electric instruments and amplified sound for the first time, as well as electronic effects and synthesizers. Many of the developments during the late 1960s and early 1970s have since become established elements of jazz fusion musical practice. Fusion arrangements vary in complexity—some employ groove-based vamps fixed to a single key, or even a single chord, with a simple melodic motif (a lick). Others can feature odd or shifting time signatures with elaborate chord progressions, melodies, and counter-melodies. Typically, these arrangements, whether simple or complex, will feature extended improvised sections that can vary in length
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Mario Bauza
Mario Bauzá
Mario Bauzá
(April 28, 1911 – July 11, 1993) was an Afro-Cuban jazz musician. He was one of the first to introduce Cuban music to the United States by bringing Cuban musical styles to the New York City jazz scene. While Cuban bands had popular jazz tunes in their repertoire for years,[2][3] Bauzá's composition "Tangá" was the first piece to blend jazz with clave, and is considered the first true Afro-Cuban jazz
Afro-Cuban jazz
or Latin jazz
Latin jazz
tune.Contents1 Biography 2 "Tangá" and the creation of Latin jazz 3 Master of arranging in-clave 4 Discography 5 Sources 6 ReferencesBiography[edit] Trained as a classical musician, he was a clarinetist in the Havana Philharmonic Orchestra by the age of nine, where he would stay for three years
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Motif (music)
In music, a motif  (pronunciation) (help·info) is a short musical idea,[5] a salient recurring figure, musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition: "The motive is the smallest structural unit possessing thematic identity".[3] The Encyclopédie de la Pléiade regards it as a "melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic cell", whereas the 1958 Encyclopédie Fasquelle maintains that it may contain one or more cells, though it remains the smallest analyzable element or phrase within a subject.[6] It is commonly regarded as the shortest subdivision of a theme or phrase that still maintains its identity as a musical idea
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Rhythm And Blues
Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in the 1940s.[1] The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular.[2] In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands usually consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass, drums, one or more saxophones, and sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes often encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy,[3] as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships, economics, aspirations, and sex. The term "rhythm and blues" has undergone a number of shifts in meaning
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Latin Jazz
Latin jazz
Latin jazz
is a genre of jazz with Latin American rhythms. Although musicians continually expand its parameters, the term Latin jazz
Latin jazz
is generally understood to have a more specific meaning than simply "jazz from Latin America". Some Latin jazz
Latin jazz
typically employs rhythms that either have a direct analog in Africa, or exhibit an African influence
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Guitar Amplifier
A guitar amplifier (or amp) is an electronic device or system that strengthens the weak electrical signal from a pickup on an electric guitar, bass guitar, or acoustic guitar so that it can produce sound through one or more loudspeakers, which are typically housed in a wooden cabinet. A guitar amplifier may be a standalone wood or metal cabinet that contains only the power amplifier (and preamplifier) circuits, requiring the use of a separate speaker cabinet–or it may be a "combo" amplifier, which contains both the amplifier and one or more speakers in a wooden cabinet
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Effects Unit
An effects unit or pedal is an electronic or digital device that alters how a musical instrument or other audio source sounds. In the 2010s, most effects use solid-state electronics and/or computer chips. Some vintage effects units from the 1930s to the 1970s and modern reissues of these effects use mechanical components as well (e.g., Leslie rotating speaker, spring reverb, and tape recorder-based echo effects) or vacuum tubes. Some effects subtly "color" a sound, such as a reverb unit used on a low setting, while others transform it dramatically, such as a distortion pedal used with electric guitar, with the overdrive set to its maximum level. Musicians, audio engineers and record producers use effects units during live performances or in the studio, typically with electric guitar, electronic keyboard, electric piano or electric bass
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Synthesizers
A synthesizer (often abbreviated as synth, also spelled synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones. Synthesizers may either imitate traditional musical instruments like piano, Hammond organ, flute, vocals; natural sounds like ocean waves, etc.; or generate novel electronic timbres. They are often played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other input devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, fingerboards, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, and electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are often called sound modules, and are controlled via USB, MIDI
MIDI
or CV/gate using a controller device, often a MIDI
MIDI
keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals (sounds)
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Arrangement
In music, an arrangement is a musical reconceptualization of a previously composed work.[1] It may differ from the original work by means of reharmonization, melodic paraphrasing, orchestration, or development of the formal structure. Arranging differs from orchestration as the latter process is limited to the assignment of notes to instruments for performance by an orchestra, concert band, or other musical ensemble. Arranging "involves adding compositional techniques, such as new thematic material for introductions, transitions, or modulations, and endings.... Arranging is the art of giving an existing melody musical variety".[2]Contents1 Classical music 2 Popular music 3 Jazz 4 For instrumental groups4.1 Strings4.1.1 Size of the string section5 Further reading 6 See also 7 ReferencesClassical music[edit] Arrangement
Arrangement
and transcriptions of classical and serious music go back to the early history of this genre
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Groove (music)
In music, groove is the sense of propulsive rhythmic "feel" or sense of "swing". In jazz, it can be felt as a persistently repeated pattern. It can be created by the interaction of the music played by a band's rhythm section (e.g. drums, electric bass or double bass, guitar, and keyboards). Groove is a key of much popular music, and can be found in many genres, including salsa, funk, rock, fusion, and soul.Characteristic rock groove: "bass drum on beats 1 and 3 and snare drum on beats 2 and 4 of the measure...add eighth notes on the hi-hat".[1]  Play (help·info)From a broader ethnomusicological perspective, groove has been described as "an unspecifiable but ordered sense of something that is sustained in a distinctive, regular and attractive way, working to draw the listener in."[2] Musicologists and other scholars have analyzed the concept of "groove" since around the 1990s
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Vamp (music)
In music, an ostinato [ostiˈnaːto] (derived from Italian: stubborn, compare English, from Latin: 'obstinate') is a motif or phrase that persistently repeats in the same musical voice, frequently at the same pitch. Well-known ostinato-based pieces include both classical compositions such as Ravel's Boléro
Boléro
and popular songs such as Donna Summer and Giorgio Moroder's "I Feel Love" (1977), Henry Mancini's theme from Peter Gunn (1959), and The Verve's "Bitter Sweet Symphony" (1997).[1][2] The repeating idea may be a rhythmic pattern, part of a tune, or a complete melody in itself.[3] Both ostinatos and ostinati are accepted English plural forms, the latter reflecting the word's Italian etymology
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Musical Key
In music theory, the key of a piece is the group of pitches, or scale, that forms the basis of a music composition in classical, Western art, and Western pop music. The group features a tonic note and its corresponding chords, also called a tonic or tonic chord, which provides a subjective sense of arrival and rest, and also has a unique relationship to the other pitches of the same group, their corresponding chords, and pitches and chords outside the group.[1] Notes and chords other than the tonic in a piece create varying degrees of tension, resolved when the tonic note or chord returns. The key may be in the major or minor mode, though musicians assume major in a statement like, "This piece is in C." Popular songs are usually in a key, and so is classical music during the common practice period, around 1650–1900
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Lick (music)
In popular music genres such as blues, jazz or rock music, a lick is "a stock pattern or phrase"[2] consisting of a short series of notes used in solos and melodic lines and accompaniment. Licks in rock and roll are often used through a formula, and variations technique in which variants of simple, stock ideas are blended and developed during the solo. In a jazz band, a lick may be performed during an improvised solo, either during an accompanied solo chorus or during an unaccompanied solo break. Jazz
Jazz
licks are usually original short phrases which can be altered so they can be used over a song's changing harmonic progressions. Similar concepts[edit] A lick is different from the related concept of a riff, as riffs can include repeated chord progressions. Licks are more often associated with single-note melodic lines than with chord progressions. However, like riffs, licks can be the basis of an entire song
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Jazz Harmony
Jazz harmony is the theory and practice of how chords are used in jazz music. Jazz bears certain similarities to other practices in the tradition of Western harmony, such as many chord progressions, and the incorporation of the major and minor scales as a basis for chordal construction. In jazz, chords are often arranged vertically in major or minor thirds, although stacked fourths are also quite common.[1] Also, jazz music tends to favor certain harmonic progressions and includes the addition of tensions, intervals such as 9ths, 11ths, and 13ths to chords. Additionally, scales unique to style are used as the basis of many harmonic elements found in jazz
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Time Signature
The time signature (also known as meter signature,[1] metre signature,[2] or measure signature[3]) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats (pulses) are to be contained in each measure (bar) and which note value is equivalent to one beat. In a music score, the time signature appears at the beginning, as a time symbol or stacked numerals, such as or 3 4 (read common time and three-four time, respectively), immediately following the key signature or immediately following the clef symbol if the key signature is empty
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Chord Progression
A chord progression or harmonic progression is a succession of musical chords, which are two or more notes, typically sounded simultaneously. Chord progressions are the foundation of harmony in Western musical tradition from the common practice era of Classical music
Classical music
to the 21st century. Chord progressions are the foundation of Western popular music styles (e.g., pop music, rock music) and traditional music (e.g., blues and jazz). In tonal music, chord progressions have the function of establishing or contradicting a tonality, the technical name for what is commonly understood as the "key" of a song or piece. Chord progressions are usually expressed by Roman numerals
Roman numerals
in Classical music
Classical music
music theory; for example, the common chord progression I vi/ii V7
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