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Jazz-rock
JAZZ FUSION (also known as FUSION) is a musical genre that developed in the late 1960s when musicians combined aspects of jazz harmony and improvisation with styles such as funk , rock , rhythm and blues , and Latin jazz
Latin jazz
. During this time many jazz musicians began experimenting with electric instruments and amplified sound for the first time, as well as electronic effects and synthesizers . Many of the developments during the late 1960s and early 1970s have since become established elements of jazz fusion musical practice. Fusion arrangements vary in complexity—some employ groove -based vamps fixed to a single key , or even a single chord, with a simple melodic motif (a lick ). Others can feature odd or shifting time signatures with elaborate chord progressions , melodies, and counter-melodies . Typically, these arrangements, whether simple or complex, will feature extended improvised sections that can vary in length
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Arrangement
In music , an ARRANGEMENT is a musical reconceptualization of a previously composed work. It may differ from the original work by means of reharmonization, melodic paraphrasing, orchestration, or development of the formal structure. Arranging differs from orchestration in that the latter process is limited to the assignment of notes to instruments for performance by an orchestra , concert band , or other musical ensemble . Arranging "involves adding compositional techniques, such as new thematic material for introductions, transitions, or modulations , and endings.... Arranging is the art of giving an existing melody musical variety"
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Synthesizers
A SYNTHESIZER (often abbreviated as SYNTH, also spelled SYNTHESISER) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones . Synthesizers may either imitate instruments like piano , Hammond organ
Hammond organ
, flute , vocals ; natural sounds like ocean waves, etc.; or generate new electronic timbres . They are often played with a musical keyboard , but they can be controlled via a variety of other input devices, including music sequencers , instrument controllers , fingerboards , guitar synthesizers , wind controllers , and electronic drums . Synthesizers without built-in controllers are often called sound modules , and are controlled via USB
USB
, MIDI
MIDI
or CV/gate using a controller device, often a MIDI
MIDI
keyboard or other controller
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Groove (music)
In music, GROOVE is the sense of propulsive rhythmic "feel" or sense of "swing ". In jazz , it can be felt as a persistently repeated pattern. It can be created by the interaction of the music played by a band's rhythm section (e.g. drums, electric bass or double bass , guitar, and keyboards). Groove is a key of much popular music , and can be found in many genres, including salsa , funk , rock , fusion , and soul . Characteristic rock groove: "bass drum on beats 1 and 3 and snare drum on beats 2 and 4 of the measure...add eighth notes on the hi-hat". Play (help ·info ) From a broader ethnomusicological perspective, groove has been described as "an unspecifiable but ordered sense of something that is sustained in a distinctive, regular and attractive way, working to draw the listener in." Musicologists and other scholars have analyzed the concept of "groove" since around the 1990s
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Musical Key
In music theory , the KEY of a piece is the group of pitches, or scale , that forms the basis of a music composition in classical , Western art, and Western pop music. The group features a tonic note and its corresponding chords , also called a tonic or tonic chord, which provides a subjective sense of arrival and rest, and also has a unique relationship to the other pitches of the same group, their corresponding chords, and pitches and chords outside the group. Notes and chords other than the tonic in a piece create varying degrees of tension, resolved when the tonic note or chord returns. The key may be in the major or minor mode, though musicians assume major in a statement like, "This piece is in C." Popular songs are usually in a key, and so is classical music during the common practice period , around 1650–1900. Longer pieces in the classical repertoire may have sections in contrasting keys
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Motif (music)
In music , a MOTIF (pronunciation) (help ·info ) or MOTIVE is a short musical idea , a salient recurring figure , musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition : "The motive is the smallest structural unit possessing thematic identity". The Encyclopédie de la Pléiade regards it as a "melodic , rhythmic , or harmonic cell ", whereas the 1958 Encyclopédie Fasquelle maintains that it may contain one or more cells, though it remains the smallest analyzable element or phrase within a subject . It is commonly regarded as the shortest subdivision of a theme or phrase that still maintains its identity as a musical idea. "The smallest structural unit possessing thematic identity"
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Effects Unit
An EFFECTS UNIT or PEDAL is an electronic or digital device that alters how a musical instrument or other audio source sounds. In the 2010s, most effects use solid state electronics and/or computer chips . Some vintage effects units from the 1930s to the 1970s and modern reissues of these effects use mechanical components as well (e.g., Leslie rotating speaker
Leslie rotating speaker
, spring reverb , and tape recorder -based echo effects) or vacuum tubes . Some effects subtly "color" a sound, such as a reverb unit used on a low setting, while others transform it dramatically, such as a distortion pedal used with electric guitar, with the overdrive set to its maximum level. Musicians, audio engineers and record producers use effects units during live performances or in the studio , typically with electric guitar , electronic keyboard , electric piano or electric bass
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Guitar Amplifier
A GUITAR AMPLIFIER (or GUITAR AMP) is an electronic amplifier that strengthens the weak electrical signal from a pickup on an electric guitar , bass guitar , or acoustic guitar so that it can produce sound through one or more loudspeakers , which are typically housed in a wooden cabinet . A guitar amplifier may be a standalone wood or metal cabinet that contains only the power amplifier (and preamplifier ) circuits, requiring the use of a separate speaker cabinet–or it may be a "combo" amplifier, which contains both the amplifier and one or more speakers in a wooden cabinet. There is a wide range of sizes and power ratings for guitar amplifiers, from small, lightweight "practice amplifiers" with a single 8" speaker to heavy combo amps with four 10" speakers and a powerful amplifier, which are loud enough to use in a nightclub or bar performance
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Jazz Harmony
JAZZ HARMONY is the theory and practice of how chords are used in jazz music. Jazz
Jazz
bears certain similarities to other practices in the tradition of Western harmony , such as many chord progressions , and the incorporation of the major and minor scales as a basis for chordal construction. In jazz, chords are often arranged vertically in major or minor thirds , although stacked fourths are also quite common. Also, jazz music tends to favor certain harmonic progressions and includes the addition of tensions, intervals such as 9ths, 11ths, and 13ths to chords. Additionally, scales unique to style are used as the basis of many harmonic elements found in jazz. Jazz
Jazz
harmony is notable for the use of seventh chords as the basic harmonic unit more often than triads , as in classical music
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Musical Improvisation
MUSICAL IMPROVISATION (also known as musical extemporization) is the creative activity of immediate ("in the moment") musical composition , which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians . Sometimes musical ideas in improvisation are spontaneous, but may be based on chord changes in classical music , and many other kinds of music. One definition is a "performance given extempore without planning or preparation." Another definition is to "play or sing (music) extemporaneously, by inventing variations on a melody or creating new melodies, rhythms and harmonies." Encyclopædia Britannica defines it as "the extemporaneous composition or free performance of a musical passage, usually in a manner conforming to certain stylistic norms but unfettered by the prescriptive features of a specific musical text
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Rhythm And Blues
RHYTHM AND BLUES, often abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans , at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands usually consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass, drums, one or more saxophones, and sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes often encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy, as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships, economics, aspirations, and sex. The term rhythm and blues has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s it was frequently applied to blues records
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Latin Jazz
1943 New York , Cuban music and jazz 1957 Brazil , Brazilian music and jazz CULTURAL ORIGINS * Cuba * United States * Brazil REGIONAL SCENES * Cuba * Brazil * US * other countriesLATIN JAZZ is a genre of jazz with Latin American rhythms. Although musicians continually expand its parameters, the term Latin jazz is generally understood to have a more specific meaning than simply jazz from Latin America . Some Latin jazz typically employs rhythms that either have a direct analog in Africa, or exhibit an African influence
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Lick (music)
In popular music genres such as blues , jazz or rock music, a LICK is "a stock pattern or phrase " consisting of a short series of notes that is used in solos and melodic lines and accompaniment . Licks in rock and roll are often used through a formula, and variations technique in which variants of simple, stock ideas are blended and developed during the solo. In a jazz band , a lick may be performed during an improvised solo, either during an accompanied solo chorus or during an unaccompanied solo break . Jazz licks are usually original short phrases which can be altered so that they can be used over a song's changing harmonic progressions. SIMILAR CONCEPTSA lick is different from the related concept of a riff in that riffs can also include repeated chord progressions . Licks are usually associated with single-note melodic lines rather than chord progressions. However, like riffs, licks can be used as the basis of an entire song
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Time Signature
The TIME SIGNATURE (also known as METER SIGNATURE, METRE SIGNATURE, or MEASURE SIGNATURE ) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats (pulses) are to be contained in each bar and which note value is to be given one beat. In a musical score, the time signature appears at the beginning of the piece, as a time symbol or stacked numerals, such as or 3 4 (read common time and three-four time, respectively), immediately following the key signature or immediately following the clef symbol if the key signature is empty. A mid-score time signature, usually immediately following a barline , indicates a change of meter
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Music Of Cuba
The MUSIC OF CUBA, including its instruments, performance and dance, comprises a large set of unique traditions influenced mostly by west African and European (especially Spanish) music. Due to the syncretic nature of most of its genres, Cuban music is often considered one of the richest and most influential regional musics of the world. For instance, the son cubano merges an adapted Spanish guitar (tres), melody, harmony, and lyrical traditions with Afro-Cuban
Afro-Cuban
percussion and rhythms. Almost nothing remains of the original native traditions, since the native population was exterminated in the 16th century. Since the 19th century Cuban music has been hugely popular and influential throughout the world
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Mario Bauza
MARIO BAUZá (April 28, 1911 – July 11, 1993) was an Afro-Cuban jazz musician. He was one of the first to introduce Latin music to the United States by bringing Cuban musical styles to the New York City jazz scene. While Cuban bands had popular jazz tunes in their repertoire for years, Bauzá's composition "Tangá" was the first piece to blend jazz with clave , and is considered the first true Afro-Cuban jazz or Latin jazz tune. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 "Tangá" and the creation of Latin jazz * 3 Master of arranging in-clave * 4 Discography * 5 Sources * 6 References BIOGRAPHYTrained as a classical musician, he was a clarinetist in the Havana Philharmonic Orchestra by the age of nine, where he would stay for three years. Bauzá traveled to New York in 1925 to record with Maestro Antonio María Romeu 's band, a charanga , shortly after his fourteenth birthday
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