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Jataka
The Jātaka tales (Sanskrit: जातक, birth history') are a voluminous body of literature native to India
India
concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
in both human and animal form. The future Buddha may appear as a king, an outcast, a god, an elephant—but, in whatever form, he exhibits some virtue that the tale thereby inculcates.[1] Often, Jātaka tales include an extensive cast of characters who interact and get into various kinds of trouble - whereupon the Buddha character intervenes to resolve all the problems and bring about a happy ending. In Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism, the Jātakas are a textual division of the Pāli Canon, included in the Khuddaka Nikaya
Khuddaka Nikaya
of the Sutta Pitaka
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Hinayana
"Hīnayāna" (/ˌhiːnəˈjɑːnə/) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term literally meaning the "inferior vehicle".[1][2] Tibetan teachers translate it "smaller vehicle".[3] The term is applied to the Śrāvakayāna, the Buddhist path followed by a śrāvaka who wishes to become an arhat. This pejorative term appeared around the first or second century. Hīnayāna is often contrasted with Mahāyāna, which means the "great vehicle". The term was widely used in the past by Western scholars to cover "the earliest system of Buddhist doctrine", as the Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary put it.[4] However, Buddhist scholarship use
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Prajñā (Buddhism)
Prajñā (Sanskrit) or paññā (Pāli) "wisdom" is insight in the true nature of reality, namely primarily anicca (impermanence), dukkha (dissatisfaction or suffering), anattā (non-self) and śūnyatā (emptiness).Contents1 Etymology 2 Understanding in the Buddhist traditions2.1 Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism 2.2 Mahāyāna Buddhism3 See also 4 References 5 Sources5.1 Published sources 5.2 Web-sources6 External linksEtymology[edit] Prajñā is often translated as "wisdom", but is closer in meaning to "insight", "discriminating knowledge", or "intuitive apprehen
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Pāli Canon
The Pāli
Pāli
Canon (Pali: Tipitaka; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(IAST): Tripiṭaka) is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravadan Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli
Pāli
language.[1] It is the first known and most-complete extant early Buddhist canon.[2][3] It was composed in North India
North India
and was preserved orally until it was committed to writing during the Fourth Buddhist Council in Sri Lanka in 29 BCE, approximately 454 years after the death of Gautama Buddha.[a] It was composed by members of Sangha
Sangha
of each ancient major Buddhist sub-tradition. It is written in Pali, Sanskrit, and regional Asian languages.[5] It survives in various versions
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Tibetan Buddhist Canon
The Tibetan Buddhist canon
Tibetan Buddhist canon
is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. In addition to sutrayana texts from Early Buddhist (mostly Sarvastivada) and Mahayana sources, the Tibetan canon includes tantric texts.[1] The Tibetan Canon underwent a final compilation in the 14th century by Buton Rinchen Drub (1290–1364). The Tibetans did not have a formally arranged Mahayana
Mahayana
canon and so devised their own scheme which divided texts into two broad categories: Kangyur
Kangyur
(Wylie: bka'-'gyur) or "Translated Words", consists of works supposed to have been said by the Buddha himself
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Chinese Buddhist Canon
The Chinese Buddhist Canon refers to the total body of Buddhist literature deemed canonical in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese Buddhism. The traditional term for the canon (Chinese: 大藏經 Dàzàngjīng; Japanese: 大蔵経 Daizōkyō; Korean: 대장경 Daejanggyeong; Vietnamese: Đại tạng kinh) means the "Great Treasury of Sūtras."Contents1 Contents 2 Versions 3 Languages 4 Non-collected works 5 Translations 6 Samples 7 See also 8 Notes 9 External linksContents[edit] The Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
includes Āgama, Vinaya
Vinaya
and Abhidharma texts from Early Buddhist schools, as well as the Mahāyāna sūtras and scriptures from Esoteric Buddhism. Versions[edit] There are many versions of the canon in East Asia
East Asia
in different places and time
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Threefold Training
The Buddha
The Buddha
identified the threefold training (sikkhā)[1] as training in:higher virtue (adhisīla-sikkhā) higher mind (adhicitta-sikkhā) higher wisdom (adhipaññā-sikkhā)Contents1 In the Pali
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Refuge (Buddhism)
สรณะ, ที่พึ่ง ที่ระลึก RTGS: sarana, thi phueng thi raluekVietnamese Quy yGlossary of BuddhismBuddhists take refuge in the Three Jewels
Three Jewels
or Triple Gem (also known as the "Three Refuges"). The Three Jewels
Three Jewels
are:the Buddha, the fully enlightened one the Dharma, the teachings expounded by the Buddha the Sangha, the monastic order of Buddhism
Buddhism
that practice the DharmaRefuge is common to all major schools of Buddhism
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Buddhist Paths To Liberation
The Buddhist tradition gives a wide variety of descriptions of the Buddhist Path (magga) to liberation.[1] The classical description is the Noble Eightfold Path, described in the Sutta Pitaka. This description is preceded by even older descriptions in the Sutta Pitaka, and elaborated in the various Buddhist traditions
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Buddhist Philosophy
Buddhism
Buddhism
portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portalv t ePart of a series onPhilosophyPlato Kant NietzscheBud
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Sati (Buddhism)
Sati (in Pali;[1] Sanskrit: smṛti) is mindfulness or awareness, a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya) that forms an essential part of Buddhist
Buddhist
practice. It is the first factor of the Seven Factors of Enlightenment
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Karuṇā
Karuṇā
Karuṇā
(in both Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali) is generally translated as compassion.[1] It is part of the spiritual path of both Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism.Contents1 Buddhism1.1 Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism 1.2 Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism2 Jainism 3 Miscellaneous 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Sources 7 External linksBuddhism[edit] Karuṇā
Karuṇā
is important in all schools of Buddhism. For Theravāda Buddhists, dwelling in karuṇā is a means for attaining a happy present life and heavenly rebirth
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Buddhavacana
Buddhavacana, from Pali
Pali
and Sanskrit, means "the Word of the Buddha". It refers to the works accepted within a tradition as being the teachings of the Buddha
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Bodhipakkhiyādhammā
In Buddhism, bodhipakkhiyā dhammā (Pali; variant spellings include bodhipakkhikā dhammā and bodhapakkhiyā dhammā;[1] Skt.: bodhipakṣa dharma) are qualities (dhammā) conducive or related to (pakkhiya) awakening (bodhi). In the Pali
Pali
commentaries, the term bodhipakkhiyā dhammā is used to refer to seven sets of such qualities regularly mentioned by the Buddha throughout the Pali
Pali
Canon
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Buddhist Monasticism
Buddhist
Buddhist
monasticism is one of the earliest surviving forms of organized monasticism in the history of religion. It is also one of the most fundamental institutions of Buddhism. Monks and nuns are considered to be responsible for the preservation and dissemination of the Buddha's teaching and the guidance of Buddhist
Buddhist
lay people.Contents1 History and development 2 Monastic life 3 Local variations3.1 Tibet 3.2 East Asia 3.3 Southeast Asia4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyHistory and development[edit] Further information: Sangha The order of Buddhist
Buddhist
monks and nuns was founded by Gautama Buddha during his lifetime between the fifth and fourth centuries BC. The Buddhist
Buddhist
monastic lifestyle grew out of the lifestyle of earlier sects of wandering ascetics, some of whom the Buddha had studied under
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Householder (Buddhism)
In English translations of Buddhist texts, householder denotes a variety of terms. Most broadly, it refers to any layperson, and most narrowly, to a wealthy and prestigious familial patriarch.[1] In contemporary Buddhist communities, householder is often used synonymously with laity, or non-monastics. The Buddhist notion of householder is often contrasted with that of wandering ascetics (Pali: Pāḷi: samaṇa; Sanskrit: śramaṇa) and monastics (bhikkhu and bhikkhuni), who would not live (for extended periods) in a normal house and who would pursue freedom from attachments to houses and families. Upāsakas and upāsikās, also called śrāvakas and śrāvikās - are householders and other laypersons who take refuge in the Three Jewels (the Buddha, the teachings and the community) and practice the Five Precepts. In southeast Asian communities, lay disciples also give alms to monks on their daily rounds and observe weekly uposatha days
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