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Jason-3
Jason-3
Jason-3
is partnered with the European Organisation for the Exploration of Meteorological Satellites (EUMESTAT), and National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) and is an international cooperative mission in which NOAA
NOAA
is partnering with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES, France's governmental space agency). The satellite's mission is to supply data for scientific, commercial, and practical applications to sea level rise, sea surface temperature, ocean temperature circulation, and climate change. Jason-3
Jason-3
.[4]Contents1 Mission Objectives 2 Scientific Applications 3 Orbit 4 Orbit Determination Instruments 5 Launch 6 Post-mission landing test 7 See also 8 References 9 External links9.1 About the satellite 9.2 About the flightMission Objectives[edit] Jason-3
Jason-3
will make precise measurements related to global sea surface height
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Earth Observation
Earth
Earth
observation (EO) is the gathering of information about planet Earth's physical, chemical and biological systems via remote sensing technologies supplemented by earth surveying techniques, encompassing the collection, analysis and presentation of data.[1] Earth observation is used to monitor and assess the status of, and changes in, the natural environment and the built environment. In recent years,[when?] Earth
Earth
observation has become technologically increasingly sophisticated
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Orbit Insertion
Orbit
Orbit
insertion is the spaceflight operation of adjusting a spacecraft’s momentum, in particular to allow for entry into a stable orbit around a planet, moon, or other celestial body.[1] This maneuver involves either deceleration from a speed in excess of the respective body’s escape velocity, or acceleration to it from a lower speed. The result may also be a transfer orbit, there is e.g., the term descent orbit insertion. Often this is called orbit injection.Contents1 Deceleration 2 Acceleration 3 Alternatives to rockets 4 ReferencesDeceleration[edit] The first kind of orbit insertion is used when capturing into orbit around a celestial body other than Earth, owing to the excess speed of interplanetary transfer orbits relative to their destination orbits. This shedding of excess velocity is typically achieved via a rocket firing known as an orbit insertion burn
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Argument Of Periapsis
The argument of periapsis (also called argument of perifocus or argument of pericenter), symbolized as ω, is one of the orbital elements of an orbiting body. Parametrically, ω is the angle from the body's ascending node to its periapsis, measured in the direction of motion. For specific types of orbits, words such as perihelion (for heliocentric orbits), perigee (for geocentric orbits), periastron (for orbits around stars), and so on may replace the word periapsis. (See apsis for more information.) An argument of periapsis of 0° means that the orbiting body will be at its closest approach to the central body at the same moment that it crosses the plane of reference from South to North. An argument of periapsis of 90° means that the orbiting body will reach periapsis at its northmost distance from the plane of reference. Adding the argument of periapsis to the longitude of the ascending node gives the longitude of the periapsis
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Mean Anomaly
In celestial mechanics, the mean anomaly is an angle used in calculating the position of a body in an elliptical orbit in the classical two-body problem. It is the angular distance from the pericenter which a fictitious body would have if it moved in a circular orbit, with constant speed, in the same orbital period as the actual body in its elliptical orbit.[1][2]Contents1 Definition 2 Formula 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinition[edit] Define T as the time required for a particular body to complete one orbit
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Mean Motion
In orbital mechanics, mean motion (represented by n) is the angular speed required for a body to complete one orbit, assuming constant speed in a circular orbit which completes in the same time as the variable speed, elliptical orbit of the actual body.[1] The concept applies equally well to a small body revolving about a large, massive primary body or to two relatively same-sized bodies revolving about a common center of mass. While nominally a mean, and theoretically so in the case of two-body motion, in practice the mean motion is not typically an average over time for the orbits of real bodies, which only approximate the two-body assumption
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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CNES
The Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) (English: National Centre for Space Studies) is the French government space agency (administratively, a "public administration with industrial and commercial purpose"). Its headquarters are located in central Paris and it is under the supervision of the French Ministries of Defence and Research. It operates from the Toulouse Space Center
Toulouse Space Center
and Guiana Space Centre, but also has payloads launched from space centres operated by other countries. The president of CNES
CNES
is Jean-Yves Le Gall.[2] CNES
CNES
is member of Institute of Space, its Applications and Technologies
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UTC
Coordinated Universal Time
Universal Time
(abbreviated to UTC) is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude;[1] it does not observe daylight saving time
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Flight Test
Flight testing is a branch of aeronautical engineering that develops and gathers data during flight of an aircraft, or atmospheric testing of launch vehicles and reusable spacecraft, and then analyzes the data to evaluate the aerodynamic flight characteristics of the vehicle in order to validate the design, including safety aspects. The flight test phase accomplishes two major tasks: 1) finding and fixing any design problems and then 2) verifying and documenting the vehicle capabilities for government certification or customer acceptance. The flight test phase can range from the test of a single new system for an existing vehicle to the complete development and certification of a new aircraft, launch vehicle, or reusable spacecraft
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Orbital Period
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars. For objects in the Solar System, this is often referred to as the sidereal period, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky. When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the period
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VTVL
Vertical takeoff, vertical landing (VTVL) is a form of takeoff and landing for rockets. Multiple VTVL
VTVL
craft have flown. VTVL
VTVL
technologies were developed substantially with small rockets after 2000, in part due to incentive prize competitions like the Lunar Lander Challenge
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Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
in the north to the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
(or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
in the west and the Americas
Americas
in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic
Antarctic
southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined.[1] Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
are in the Pacific Ocean
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Atmospheric Entry
Atmospheric entry
Atmospheric entry
is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite. There are two main types of atmospheric entry: uncontrolled entry, such as the entry of astronomical objects, space debris or bolides; and controlled entry (or reentry) of a spacecraft capable of being navigated or following a predetermined course. Technologies and procedures allowing the controlled atmospheric entry, descent and landing of spacecraft are collectively abbreviated as EDL.Animated illustration of different phases as a meteoroid enters the Earth's atmosphere to become visible as a meteor and land as a meteoriteAtmospheric drag and aerodynamic heating can cause atmospheric breakup capable of completely disintegrating smaller objects
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Orbital Spaceflight
An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit. To do this around the Earth, it must be on a free trajectory which has an altitude at perigee (altitude at closest approach) above 100 kilometers (62 mi); this is, by at least one convention, the boundary of space. To remain in orbit at this altitude requires an orbital speed of ~7.8 km/s
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Launch Vehicle
In spaceflight, a launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface into outer space. A launch system includes the launch vehicle, the launch pad, and other infrastructure.[1] Although a carrier rocket's payload is often an artificial satellite placed into orbit, some spaceflights, such as sounding rockets, are sub-orbital, while others enable spacecraft to escape Earth orbit entirely. Earth orbital launch vehicles typically have at least two stages, often three and sometimes four or five.Contents1 Types1.1 By launch platform 1.2 By size 1.3 Suborbital 1.4 Orbital 1.5 Translunar and interplanetary2 Return to launch site 3 Distributed launch 4 Assembly 5 Regulation 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTypes[edit]A Saturn V
Saturn V
launch vehicle sends Apollo 15
Apollo 15
on its way to the Moon.Expendable launch vehicles are designed for one-time use
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