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Jarid
el-Djerid, al-Jarīd (Arabic: الجريد‎; "Palm Leaf", Darija l-Jrīd) is a semi-desert natural region comprising southern Tunisia and adjacent parts of Algeria
Algeria
and Libya.Contents1 Geography 2 Location 3 History 4 Population 5 Economy 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksGeography[edit] The region is characterised by bare pink hills with oases and several chotts (salt pans) such as Chott el Djerid
Djerid
in Tunisia.[1] Economically the area is important for phosphate mining. Major towns include Gafsa and Tozeur. It remains the principal center of Ibāḍism in North Africa, with remaining Ibāḍī communities on Djerba
Djerba
in Tunisia, in the M'zab
M'zab
in Algeria, and in Jabal Nafusa
Nafusa
in Libya
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Djerid
el-Djerid, al-Jarīd (Arabic: الجريد‎; "Palm Leaf", Darija l-Jrīd) is a semi-desert natural region comprising southern Tunisia and adjacent parts of Algeria
Algeria
and Libya.Contents1 Geography 2 Location 3 History 4 Population 5 Economy 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksGeography[edit] The region is characterised by bare pink hills with oases and several chotts (salt pans) such as Chott el Djerid
Djerid
in Tunisia.[1] Economically the area is important for phosphate mining. Major towns include Gafsa and Tozeur. It remains the principal center of Ibāḍism in North Africa, with remaining Ibāḍī communities on Djerba
Djerba
in Tunisia, in the M'zab
M'zab
in Algeria, and in Jabal Nafusa
Nafusa
in Libya
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Mediterranean Basin
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
/ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation. The Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
is the Old World
Old World
region where olive trees grow.[2]Contents1 Geography 2 Geology and paleoclimatology 3 Flora and fauna 4 Ecoregions 5 History 6 Agriculture 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksGeography[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Limes
Originally the Latin
Latin
noun līmes (English: /ˈlaɪmiːz/;[1] Latin pl. līmitēs) had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any distinction or difference. The term was also commonly used after the 3rd century AD to denote a military district under the command of a dux limitis.[2] Limes
Limes
has sometimes been adopted in modern times for a border defence or delimiting system of Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
marking the boundaries and provinces of the Roman Empire, but it was not used by the Romans for the imperial frontier, fortified or not
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Roman North Africa
French Algeria
Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)French conquest French governorsResistance PacificationEmir Abdelkader Fatma N'SoumerMokrani Revolt Cheikh BouamamaNationalism RCUA FLN GPRAAlgerian War 1958 putsch 1961 putschÉvian Accords Independence referendumPied-Noir Harkis Oujda GroupContemporary era 1960s–80sArab nationalism 1965 putschBerber Spring 1988 Riots1990s
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Nomad
A nomad (Greek: νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.[2] Among the various ways nomads relate to their environment, one can distinguish the hunter-gatherer, the pastoral nomad owning livestock, or the "modern" peripatetic nomad. As of 1995, there were an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world.[3] Nomadic hunting and gathering, following seasonally available wild plants and game, is by far the oldest human subsistence method.[citation needed] Pastoralists raise herds, driving them, or moving with them, in patterns that normally avoid depleting pastures beyond their ability to recover.[citation needed] Nomadism is also a lifestyle adapted to infertile regions such as steppe, tundra, or ice and sand, where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources
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Sahara
The Sahara
Sahara
(Arabic: الصحراء الكبرى‎, aṣ-ṣaḥrāʼ al-kubrá, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica
Antarctica
and the Arctic.[1] Its area of 9,200,000 square kilometres (3,600,000 sq mi)[2] is comparable to the area of China
China
or the United States. The name 'Sahara' is derived from dialectal Arabic word for "desert", ṣaḥra (صحرا /ˈsˤaħra/).[3][4][5][6] The desert comprises much of North Africa, excluding the fertile region on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
coast, the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
of the Maghreb, and the Nile Valley
Nile Valley
in Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
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Bishopric
The word diocese (/ˈdaɪəsɪs, -siːs, -siːz/)[a] is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration". When now used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to an administrative territorial entity.[2] In the Western Church, the district is under the supervision of a bishop (who may have assistant bishops to help him or her) and is divided into parishes under the care of priests; but in the Eastern Church, the word denotes the area under the jurisdiction of a patriarch and the bishops under his jurisdiction administer parishes.[2] This structure of church governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese. It can also be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese
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Nepte
Nefta (or Nafta; 33°53′N 7°53′E / 33.883°N 7.883°E / 33.883; 7.883) is a town and oasis in Tunisia, close to the Algerian border, and just north of the Chott el Djerid.[1]Contents1 Religious significance 2 The town 3 History 4 In Literature 5 Gallery 6 Access 7 References 8 External linksReligious significance[edit] Nefta is considered by most Sufis to be the spiritual home of Sufism, a mystical branch of Islam; many religious buildings are located in the district El Bayadha. Nefta is a pilgrimage center to which pilgrims travel throughout the year. There is a Folk Festival in April and a Date Festival in November/December.[citation needed] Nefta is the religious center of the Bled el Djerid, the "Land of Palms", with more than 24 mosques and 100 marabouts. The marabouts still attract pilgrims from all over southern Tunisia
Tunisia
and even from Algeria
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Nefta
Nefta (or Nafta; 33°53′N 7°53′E / 33.883°N 7.883°E / 33.883; 7.883) is a town and oasis in Tunisia, close to the Algerian border, and just north of the Chott el Djerid.[1]Contents1 Religious significance 2 The town 3 History 4 In Literature 5 Gallery 6 Access 7 References 8 External linksReligious significance[edit] Nefta is considered by most Sufis to be the spiritual home of Sufism, a mystical branch of Islam; many religious buildings are located in the district El Bayadha. Nefta is a pilgrimage center to which pilgrims travel throughout the year. There is a Folk Festival in April and a Date Festival in November/December.[citation needed] Nefta is the religious center of the Bled el Djerid, the "Land of Palms", with more than 24 mosques and 100 marabouts. The marabouts still attract pilgrims from all over southern Tunisia and even from Algeria
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Vandals
The Vandals, a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes, first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland, but some later moved in large numbers, including most notably the group which successively established kingdoms in Spain and then North Africa
North Africa
in the 5th century.[1] Scholars believe that the Vandals
Vandals
migrated from southern Scandinavia to the area between the lower Oder
Oder
and Vistula
Vistula
rivers during the 2nd century BC and settled in Silesia
Silesia
from around 120 BC.[2][3][4] They are associated with the Przeworsk culture
Przeworsk culture
and were possibly the same people as the Lugii
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Muslim Conquest Of The Maghreb
Muslim conquest of the Levantal-Qaryatayn Bosra Ajnadayn Marj Rahit Fahl Damascus Maraj-al-Debaj Emesa Yarmouk Jerusalem Hazir Aleppo Iron Bridge GermaniciaMuslim conquest of EgyptHeliopolis Babylon Fortress Alexandria NikiouMuslim conquest of North AfricaSufetula Vescera Mamma Carthage Umayyad
Umayyad
invasions of Anatolia and Constantinople1st Constantinople Sebastopolis Tyana 2nd Constantinople Nicaea AkroinonArab–
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Umayyad Empire
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa
Africa
that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara.[2] It contrasts with North Africa, whose territories are part of the League of Arab
Arab
states within the Arab world
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western)
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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