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Japanese People
Japanese people
Japanese people
(Japanese: 日本人, Hepburn: nihonjin) are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan[23][24][25][26] and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.[27] Worldwide, approximately 129 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 125 million are residents of Japan.[1] People of Japanese ancestry who live outside Japan
Japan
are referred to as nikkeijin (日系人), the Japanese diaspora
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Hyōgo Prefecture
Hyōgo Prefecture
Hyōgo Prefecture
(兵庫県, Hyōgo-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kansai region
Kansai region
on
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Christianity
Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic[1] religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ, or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths
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Hiragana
Hiragana
Hiragana
(平仮名, ひらがな, Japanese pronunciation: [çiɾaɡana]) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script). It is a phonetic lettering system. The word hiragana literally means "ordinary" or "simple" kana ("simple" originally as contrasted with kanji).[1][2] Hiragana
Hiragana
and katakana are both kana systems. With one or two minor exceptions, each sound in the Japanese language
Japanese language
(strictly, each mora) is represented by one character (or one digraph) in each system. This may be either a vowel such as "a" (hiragana あ); a consonant followed by a vowel such as "ka" (か); or "n" (ん), a nasal sonorant which, depending on the context, sounds either like English m, n, or ng ([ŋ]), or like the nasal vowels of French
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Japanese Writing System
The modern Japanese writing system
Japanese writing system
uses a combination of logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic kana. Kana itself consists of a pair of syllabaries: hiragana, used primarily for native or naturalised Japanese words and grammatical elements, and katakana, used primarily for foreign words and names, loanwords, onomatopoeia, scientific names, and sometimes for emphasis. Almost all written Japanese sentences contain a mixture of kanji and kana. Because of this mixture of scripts, in addition to a large inventory of kanji characters, the Japanese writing system
Japanese writing system
is often considered to be the most complicated in use anywhere in the world.[1][2] Several thousand kanji characters are in regular use. Each has an intrinsic meaning (or range of meanings), and most have more than one pronunciation, the choice of which depends on context
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Japanese Pitch Accent
Japanese pitch accent (高低アクセント, kōtei akusento) is the pitch accent in the Japanese language, which distinguishes words in most Japanese dialects. The nature and location of the accent for a given word may vary between dialects. For instance, the word for "now" is [iꜜma] in the Tokyo dialect, with the accent on the first mora (or equivalently, with a downstep in pitch between the first and second morae), but in the Kansai dialect it is [i.maꜜ]. A final [i] or [ɯ] is often devoiced to [i̥] or [ɯ̥] after a downstep and an unvoiced consonant.Contents1 Standard Japanese1.1 Scalar pitch 1.2 Binary pitch 1.3 Downstep 1.4 Examples of words that differ only in pitch2 Other dialects2.1 Kyushu (two-pattern type) 2.2 No accent vs
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Gemination
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant. It is distinct from stress and may appear independently of it. Gemination literally means "twinning" and comes from the same Latin
Latin
root as "Gemini". Consonant
Consonant
length is distinctive in some languages, like Arabic, Berber, Maltese, Catalan, Danish, Estonian, Finnish, Classical Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil and Telugu. Most languages (including English) do not have distinctive long consonants, however. Vowel length
Vowel length
is distinctive in more languages than consonant length is
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Japanese New Religions
Japanese new religions
Japanese new religions
are new religious movements established in Japan. In Japanese they are called shinshūkyō (新宗教) or shinkō shūkyō (新興宗教). Japanese scholars classify all religious organizations founded since the middle of the 19th century as "new religions"; thus, the term refers to a great diversity and number of organizations. Most came into being in the mid-to-late twentieth century and are influenced by much older traditional religions including Shinto, Buddhism, and Hinduism. Western influences include Christianity, the Bible
Bible
and the writings of Nostradamus.[1][2]Contents1 Before World War II 2 After World War II2.1 Background 2.2 Influence3 Other nations 4 Statistics 5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyBefore World War II[edit] In the 1860s Japan
Japan
began to experience great social turmoil and rapid modernization
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Japanese Nationality Law
Japanese nationality is a legal designation and set of rights granted to those people who have met the criteria for citizenship by parentage or by naturalization. Nationality
Nationality
is in the jurisdiction of the Minister of Justice and is generally governed by the Nationality
Nationality
Law of 1950.Contents1 Nationality
Nationality
by birth 2 Naturalization 3 Loss of citizenship 4 Dual nationality 5 Travel freedom 6 See also 7 References 8 External links Nationality
Nationality
by birth[edit] Japan
Japan
is a strict[1] jus sanguinis state as opposed to jus soli state, meaning that it attributes citizenship by blood and not by location of birth
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Katakana
Katakana
Katakana
(片仮名, かたかな, カタカナ, Japanese pronunciation: [katakana]) is a Japanese
Japanese
syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system
Japanese writing system
along with hiragana,[2] kanji, and in some cases the Latin script
Latin script
(known as romaji). The word katakana means "fragmentary kana", as the katakana characters are derived from components or fragments of more complex kanji. Katakana
Katakana
and hiragana are both kana systems. With one or two minor exceptions, each syllable (strictly mora) in the Japanese language
Japanese language
is represented by one character, or kana, in each system
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Hepburn Romanization
Hepburn romanization
Hepburn romanization
(ヘボン式ローマ字, Hebon-shiki Rōmaji, 'Hepburn-type Roman letters')[1] is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that uses the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet[2] and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries.[3] Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation.[1] The Hepburn style (Hebon-shiki) was developed in the late 19th century by an international commission that was formed to develop a unified system of romanization
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Nation
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture
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Ethnic Group
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, society, culture or nation.[1][2] Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art, and physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population, often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Vowels
Paired vowels are: unrounded • roundedManners of articulationObstruent    Stop     Affricate     Fricative        Strident            SibilantSonorant    Nasal     Approximant        Semivowel    Vowel     Vibrant        Flap/Tap         TrillLiquid    Rhotic     LateralOcclusive ContinuantAirstreamsEgressive Ingressive Ejective Implosive Nonexplosive Lingual (clicks) Linguo-pulmonic Linguo-ejective PercussiveSee alsoArticulatory phonetics Aspirated consonant No au
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Japanese Phonology
This article deals with the phonology (the sound system) of Standard Japanese.Contents1 Consonants1.1 Weakening 1.2 Palatalization and affrication 1.3 /d, z/ neutralization 1.4 Moraic nasal 1.5 Gemination 1.6 Sandhi2 Vowels2.1 Devoicing 2.2 Nasalization 2.3 Glottal stop
Glottal stop
insertion3 Phonotactics 4 Accent 5 Sound change5.1 Sandhi5.1.1 Rendaku 5.1.2 Gemination 5.1.3 Renjō5.2 Onbin5.2.1 Verb conjugation 5.2.2 Polite adjective forms 5.2.3 -hito 5.2.4 Fusion6 Notes 7 References 8 Further readingConsonants[edit]Bilabial Alveolar Alveolo-
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