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Jan Haller
Johann Haller
Johann Haller
or Jan Haller[1] (1463–1525) is considered one of the first commercial printers in Poland.[2]Contents1 Copernicus 2 Haller's life 3 See also 4 Notes 5 External linksCopernicus[edit] Born in Rothenburg, Haller is perhaps best known for publishing in 1509 a volume of poems by Theophylact Simocatta
Theophylact Simocatta
which had been translated from Byzantine Greek by Nicolaus Copernicus. At the time there was no printing press in Copernicus' area—Lidzbark (Heilsberg), Frombork
Frombork
(Frauenburg), Toruń
Toruń
(Thorn)[3]—therefore Copernicus' translation could have been printed only in Breslau (Wrocław), Kraków
Kraków
or farther afield
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Kraków Academy
The Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
(Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland. Founded in 1364 by Casimir III the Great, the Jagiellonian University is the oldest university in Poland, the second oldest university in Central Europe, and one of the oldest surviving universities in the world. Notable alumni include, among others, mathematician and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish king John III Sobieski, Pope John Paul II, and Nobel laureates
Nobel laureates
Ivo Andrić
Ivo Andrić
and Wisława Szymborska. The campus of the Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
is centrally located within the city of Kraków. The university consists of fifteen faculties — including the humanities, law, the natural and social sciences, and medicine
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Jost Amman
Jost Amman
Jost Amman
(June 13, 1539 – March 17, 1591) was a Swiss-German artist, celebrated chiefly for his woodcuts, done mainly for book illustrations. Amman was born in Zürich, the son of a professor of Classics
Classics
and Logic. He was himself well-educated. Little of his personal history is known beyond the fact that he moved to Nuremberg
Nuremberg
in 1560, where he took on citizenship and continued to reside until his death in March 1591. He worked initially with Virgil Solis, then a leading producer of book illustrations. His productivity was very remarkable, as may be gathered from the statement of one of his pupils, who said that the drawings he made during a period of four years would have filled a hay wagon. A large number of his original drawings are in the Berlin print room. About 1,500 prints are attributed to him
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Early Printing In Poland
The history of printing in Poland
Poland
began in the late 15th century, when following the creation of the Gutenberg Bible
Gutenberg Bible
in 1455, printers from Western Europe spread the new craft abroad. The Polish capital at the time was in Kraków, where scholars, artists and merchants from Western Europe had already been present. Other cities which were part of the Polish kingdom followed later. Cities of northern Polish province of Royal Prussia.,[1] like the Hanseatic League city of Danzig
Danzig
(Gdańsk), had established printing houses early on. The first printing shop was possibly opened in Kraków
Kraków
by Augsburg-based Günther Zainer
Günther Zainer
in 1465. In 1491, Schweipolt Fiol printed the first book in Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script. The next recorded printing shop was a Dutch one known by the name Typographus Sermonum Papae Leonis I
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Printing
Printing
Printing
is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder
Cyrus Cylinder
and the Cylinders of Nabonidus. The earliest known form of printing as applied to paper was woodblock printing, which appeared in China before 220 A.D.[1] Later developments in printing technology include the movable type invented by Bi Sheng around 1040 AD[2] and the printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
in the 15th century
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Breviary
The Breviary
Breviary
(Latin: breviarium) is a book in many Western Christian denominations that "contains all the liturgical texts for the Office, whether said in choir or in private."[1] Historically, different breviaries were used in the various parts of Christendom, such as Aberdeen Breviary, Belleville Breviary, Stowe Breviary
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Almanac
An almanac (also spelled almanack and almanach) is an annual publication that includes information like weather forecasts, farmers' planting dates, tide tables, and other tabular data often arranged according to the calendar. Celestial figures and various statistics are found in almanacs, such as the rising and setting times of the Sun and Moon, dates of eclipses, hours of high and low tides, and religious festivals.Contents1 Etymology 2 Early almanacs2.1 Hemerologies and parapegmata 2.2 Ephemerides, zijs and tables 2.3 Medieval almanacs 2.4 Early modern almanacs3 Contemporary almanacs3.1 GPS almanac4 List of almanacs by country of publication 5 Almanac
Almanac
calculators 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The etymology of the word is unclear, but there are several theories:It is suggested the word almanac derives from a Greek word meaning calendar
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Lithuania
Coordinates: 55°N 24°E / 55°N 24°E / 55; 24 Lithuania
Lithuania
(/ˌlɪθjuˈeɪniə/ ( listen);[11] Lithuanian: Lietuva [lʲɪɛtʊˈvɐ]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia
Latvia
to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland
Poland
to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
(a Russian exclave) to the southwest. Lithuania
Lithuania
has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2017[update], and its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Lithuanians
Lithuanians
are a Baltic people
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Coat Of Arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters, crest, and motto
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Lucas Watzenrode The Younger
Lucas Watzenrode the Younger (sometimes Watzelrode and Waisselrod; German: Lucas Watzenrode der Jüngere; Polish: Łukasz Watzenrode; 30 October 1447 – 29 March 1512) was Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermeland) and patron to his nephew, astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.Contents1 Early life 2 Historic background 3 Bishop 4 Family 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further readingEarly life[edit] The family and its name stemmed from the Silesian village of Pszenno (in German Weizenrodau "wheat uprooting"). Watzenrode was born in Thorn (Toruń), son of the merchant Lucas Watzenrode the Elder (1400–62)
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Prince-Bishop Of Warmia
This is a list of Bishops and Prince-Bishops of the Diocese of Warmia (Polish: Diecezja warmińska, Latin: Dioecesis Varmiensis, German: Bistum Ermland), which was elevated to the Archdiocese of Warmia in 1992. The Bishopric was founded in 1243 as the Bishopric of Ermland, one of four bishoprics of Teutonic Prussia. In 1356 it became an Imperial Prince-Bishopric under Emperor Charles IV, and from 1512 until 1930 it was an exempt diocese. From 1947 to 1972 the episcopal see was left vacant following the expulsion of the German population and the Bishop of Ermland from Prussia
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Laurentius Corvinus
Laurentius Corvinus
Laurentius Corvinus
(German: Laurentius Rabe;[1][2][3][4] Polish: Wawrzyniec Korwin; 1465–1527) was a Silesian scholar who lectured as an "extraordinary" (i.e. untenured) professor at the University of Krakow when Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
began to study there. He also attracted a reputation as one of the finest Silesian poets of the early Renaissance and as an important agent for cultural and religious change in his adopted home of Breslau
Breslau
(now Wrocław). Laurentius Corvinus
Laurentius Corvinus
was born as Laurentius Rabe in Neumarkt (now Środa Śląska) in Lower Silesia, about 30 km east of Legnica west of Vrotzuav, son of Barthel Rabe, a furrier and member of the local council
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Control Number (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification.Contents1 History 2 Format 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names
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Jan Łaski (1456–1531)
Jan Łaski
Jan Łaski
(1456 in Łask
Łask
– 19 May 1531 in Kalisz, Poland) was a Polish nobleman, Grand Chancellor of the Crown (1503–10), diplomat, from 1490 secretary to Poland's King Casimir IV Jagiellon
Casimir IV Jagiellon
and from 1508 coadjutor to the Archbishop of Lwów. From 1510 Łaski was Archbishop of Gniezno
Archbishop of Gniezno
and thus Primate of Poland.Contents1 Biography1.1 Secretary to the Chancellor 1.2 Secretary to the King 1.3 Chancellor of Poland 1.4 Primate of Poland2 Works2.1 Collections of synodal legislation3 See also 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] He was the uncle of his namesake Jan Łaski, the noted Protestant reformer
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Kasper Hochfeld
Florian Ungler (died 1536[1] in Kraków) and Kasper Hochfeder were printers from Bavaria[2] that after 1510 became pioneers of printing and publishing in Polish language.1512 Introductio in Ptolomei Cosmographiam,[3] with maps of America 1513 Biernat of Lublin's Raj duszny (The Spiritual Paradise) or Hortulus Animae (literally "Garden of the Soul"), was considered the first book printed entirely in Polish.[4][5] It is, in fact, the second[6]. 1514 Orthographia seu modus recte scribendi et legendi Polonicum idioma quam utilissimus, the first Grammar of Polish languageAfter having published about 80 works of high quality, he had to close his shop, working for his competitor Johann Haller for some time
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