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Jan Czeczot
JAN CZECZOT of Ostoja (Lithuanian : Jonas Čečiotas, Belarusian : Ян Чачот, Jan Čačot, 1796–1847) was a Polish romantic poet and ethnographer. Fascinated by folklore and traditional folk songs of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania , confederal part of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth , he recollected hundreds of them in his works. Inspired by them, he also wrote several poems in what could be considered a pre-modern Belarusian language . As such, he is often cited as one of the first Polish ethnographers and one of the predecessors of the Belarusian national revival . BIOGRAPHY Jan Czeczot was born on 24 July 1796 in a noble family that was part of the Clan of Ostoja family of Tadeusz Czeczot in Małuszyce (Malušyčy , now in Hrodna Voblast ) near Navahrudak . He graduated from a Dominican school in Navahrudak and then joined the Vilna Academy in 1816
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Sybirak
A SYBIRAK (Polish: , plural: sybiracy) is a person resettled to Siberia
Siberia
. Like its Russian counterpart sibiryak it can be used for any dweller of Siberia
Siberia
, but it more specifically refers to Poles imprisoned or exiled to Siberia
Siberia
or even to those sent to the Russian Arctic or Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
in the 1940s. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Soviet Era * 2 See also * 3 References * 3.1 Bibliography * 4 External links * 5 Further reading HISTORY 240-year-old Siberian house moved to Poland Polish students in Russian exile. Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
in Siberia, by Jacek Malczewski
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Siberia
Coordinates : 60°0′N 105°0′E / 60.000°N 105.000°E / 60.000; 105.000 Siberia Russian : Сибирь (Sibir) Geographical region Siberian Federal District
Siberian Federal District
Geographic Russian Siberia North Asia
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Okhrana
The DEPARTMENT FOR PROTECTING THE PUBLIC SECURITY AND ORDER (Russian : Отделение по Охранению Общественной Безопасности и Порядка), usually called "guard department" (Russian : Охранное отделение) and commonly abbreviated in modern sources as OKHRANA (Russian : Охрана; IPA: ( listen ); En. the guard) was a secret police force of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and part of the police department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in the late 19th century, aided by the Special Corps of Gendarmes . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 2.1 Pre-1905 * 2.2 The Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1905
* 2.3 The February Revolution
February Revolution
* 3 Use of torture * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEW St. Petersburg
St

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Ignacy Domejko
IGNACY DOMEYKO or DOMEJKO, pseudonym: Żegota (Spanish : Ignacio Domeyko, Spanish pronunciation: ; born near Nieśwież , now Karelichy District , Belarus
Belarus
, 31 July 1802 – 23 January 1889, Santiago de Chile
Santiago de Chile
) was a Polish geologist , mineralogist and educator. Domeyko spent most of his life, and died, in his adopted country, Chile
Chile
. After a youth passed in partitioned Poland
Poland
, Domeyko participated in the Polish November 1830 Uprising against the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. Upon its suppression, he was forced into exile and spent part of his life in France (where he had gone with fellow Philomath , Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz ) before eventually settling in Chile
Chile
, of which he became a citizen
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Ostoja Coat Of Arms
ANCIENT LINES - 150 LORDS OF OSTOJA Balicki , Bańkowski (Bankowski), Baliński, Banczelski, Baranowski , Bartkowski (pl) (Bartoszewski), Bąduski, Bątkowski , Bębnowski , Biel, Bielski, Bieńkowski, Biestrzykowski, Blinowski , Błaszkowski, BłOCISZEWSKI , Bobinski, BOGUSłAWSKI , BOGUSZEWSKI , Borowieski, Bratkowski , Brokowski , Broniowski, Bzowski , Bukowski, Chechelski Chełmski , Chocienski, Chodorkowski , Chotkowski , , Chrostowski , Chrościcki, Chrząstowski , CHYżYńSKI (Chyżewski), Ciechański , Cieszęcicki, Cieśliński , Czajkowski , Czernikowski, de Gord, Dembowski (Dębowski), Dmosicki (Dmościcki), Dmuszewski, Dubaniewski (Dobaniowski), Dobromirski , DOMARADZKI (Domaracki), Dudkowski (Dutkowski), Dulowski, Dzieczyński, GAJEWSKI , Gawłowski , Glewski, Głazowski (Głazewski), Głębocki , Głodowski , GłOGIńSKI , Gniad
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Neman River
The NEMAN, NEMUNAS, NYOMAN, NIEMEN or MEMEL, a major Eastern European river , rises in Belarus
Belarus
and flows through Lithuania
Lithuania
before draining into the Curonian Lagoon
Curonian Lagoon
, and then into the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
at Klaipėda
Klaipėda
. It begins at the confluence of two smaller tributaries (map coordinates 53.348194,27.108377), about 15 kilometers (9 mi) southwest of the town of Uzda in central Belarus, and about 55 km (34 mi) southwest of Minsk
Minsk
. In its lower reaches it forms the border between Lithuania
Lithuania
and Russia
Russia
's Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
. It also, very briefly, forms part of the Belarus– Lithuania
Lithuania
border
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Destination Spa
A DESTINATION SPA is a resort centered on a spa , such as a mineral spa . Historically many such spas were developed at the location of natural hot springs or mineral springs . Typically over a seven-day stay, such facilities provide a comprehensive program that includes spa services, physical fitness activities, wellness education, healthy cuisine, and special interest programming. Some destination spas offer an all-inclusive program that includes facilitated fitness classes, healthy cuisine, educational classes and seminars as well as similar services to a beauty salon or a day spa . Guests reside and participate in the program at a destination spa instead of just visiting for a treatment or pure vacation. Some destination spas are in exotic locations or in spa towns
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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National Library Of The Czech Republic
6,919,075 total items 21,204 manuscripts c. 4,200 incunabula OTHER INFORMATION DIRECTOR Petr Kroupa WEBSITE www.nkp.czThe NATIONAL LIBRARY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC (Czech : Národní knihovna České republiky) is the central library of the Czech Republic . It is directed by the Ministry of Culture . The library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař . The National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers. As well as Czech texts, the library also stores older material from Turkey, Iran and India. The library also houses books for Charles University in Prague
Prague

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International Standard Name Identifier
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NAME IDENTIFIER (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012. The ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 ( TC 46/SC 9 ) is responsible for the development of the standard. ISNI can be used to disambiguate names that might otherwise be confused, and links the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONTROL NUMBER (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names. The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
prepared cards of bibliographic information for their library catalog and would sell duplicate sets of the cards to other libraries for use in their catalogs
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Adam Mickiewicz
ADAM BERNARD MICKIEWICZ ( ( listen ); 24 December 1798 – 26 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist. He is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Belarus. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism
Romanticism
, he is counted as one of Poland's " Three Bards " ("Trzej Wieszcze") and is widely regarded as Poland's greatest poet. He is also considered one of the greatest Slavic and European poets and has been dubbed a "Slavic bard". A leading Romantic dramatist, he has been compared in Poland
Poland
and Europe to Byron and Goethe . He is known chiefly for the poetic drama Dziady (Forefathers' Eve) and the national epic poem Pan Tadeusz . His other influential works include Konrad Wallenrod
Konrad Wallenrod
and Grażyna
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Dziady
DZIADY, an ancient Slavic feast , commemorated the dead. Literally, the word translates as "Grandfathers". The commemoration took place twice every year (in spring and in autumn). During the feast the ancient Slavs organized libations and ritual meals. In local mythologies such feasts were organized both for the living and for the souls of the forefathers who joined the dziady after dark. In Poland
Poland
the tradition survived in the form of Christian Zaduszki feast. In Belarus
Belarus
, Dziady
Dziady
(Дзяды) usually took place on the last Saturday before St. Dmitry 's day, at the end of October/beginning of November (Dźmitreuskija dziady, St. Dmitry's Dziady). There were also Trinity
Trinity
Day Dziady, SHROVETIDE DZIADY, and some other dates. Today, it is celebrated on November 2. Lithuanians
Lithuanians
have similar feast day, called Ilgės
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Folk Lore
FOLKLORE is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales , proverbs and jokes . They include material culture , ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore
Folklore
also includes customary lore , the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas
Christmas
and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites. Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact . Just as essential as the form, folklore also encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next
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Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The POLISH–LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH, formally the CROWN OF THE KINGDOM OF POLAND AND THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA, after 1791 the COMMONWEALTH OF POLAND, was a dualistic state , a bi-confederation of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duke
Duke
of Lithuania
Lithuania
. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. At its peak in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth spanned some 450,000 square miles (1,200,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million
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