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Jan Arnoldus Schouten
Jan Arnoldus Schouten
Jan Arnoldus Schouten
(28 August 1883 – 20 January 1971) was a Dutch mathematician and Professor at the Delft University of Technology. He was an important contributor to the development of tensor calculus and Ricci calculus, and was one of the founders of the Mathematisch Centrum in Amsterdam.Contents1 Biography 2 Work2.1 Grundlagen der Vektor- und Affinoranalysis 2.2 Levi-Civita
Levi-Civita
connection 2.3 Works by Schouten3 Publications3.1 Works about Schouten4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Schouten was born in Nieuwer-Amstel
Nieuwer-Amstel
to a family of eminent shipping magnates
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Nieuwer-Amstel
Amstelveen
Amstelveen
( pronunciation (help·info)) is a municipality in the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland. It is a suburban part of the metropolitan area of Amsterdam. The municipality of Amstelveen
Amstelveen
consists of the following villages or districts: Amstelveen, Bovenkerk, Westwijk, Bankras-Kostverloren, Groenelaan, Waardhuizen, Middenhoven, Randwijk, Elsrijk, Keizer Karelpark, Nes aan de Amstel
Amstel
and Ouderkerk aan de Amstel
Ouderkerk aan de Amstel
(partly). The name Amstelveen comes from Amstel, a local river, and veen, meaning fen, peat, or moor. KLM
KLM
has its headquarters in Amstelveen
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Hermann Weyl
Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, ForMemRS[2] (German: [vaɪl]; 9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher. Although much of his working life was spent in Zürich, Switzerland
Switzerland
and then Princeton, he is associated with the University of Göttingen
University of Göttingen
tradition of mathematics, represented by David Hilbert
David Hilbert
and Hermann Minkowski. His research has had major significance for theoretical physics as well as purely mathematical disciplines including number theory. He was one of the most influential mathematicians of the twentieth century, and an important member of the Institute for Advanced Study during its early years.[5][6][7] Weyl published technical and some general works on space, time, matter, philosophy, logic, symmetry and the history of mathematics
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Royal Netherlands Academy Of Arts And Sciences
The Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Academy of Arts and Sciences (Dutch: Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands. The Academy is housed in the Trippenhuis
Trippenhuis
in Amsterdam. In addition to various advisory and administrative functions it operates a number of research institutes and awards many prizes, including the Lorentz Medal
Lorentz Medal
in theoretical physics, the Dr Hendrik Muller Prize for Behavioural and Social Science
Science
and the Heineken Prizes.Contents1 Main functions 2 Members and organization 3 History 4 Research institutes 5 Young Academy 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksMain functions[edit] The Academy advises the Dutch government on scientific matters
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Epe
Epe
Epe
(Dutch pronunciation: [ˈeːpə] ( listen)) is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. The municipality has a population of 32,191 (2015, source: CBS), and the town itself has a population of 15,552. The town hall stands in Epe, which is situated about 16 km (9.9 mi) north of Apeldoorn
Apeldoorn
and 21 km (13 mi) south of Zwolle. Another important town within the municipality is Vaassen
Vaassen
(12,739 inhabitants), halfway between Epe
Epe
and Apeldoorn. It has an interesting castle called 'Kasteel De Cannenburgh', which is open to visitors (guided tour compulsory). Epe, Vaassen
Vaassen
and also the village of Oene each have a beautiful medieval church
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Josiah Willard Gibbs
Josiah Willard Gibbs
Josiah Willard Gibbs
(February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics. His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry into a rigorous inductive science. Together with James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann, he created statistical mechanics (a term that he coined), explaining the laws of thermodynamics as consequences of the statistical properties of ensembles of the possible states of a physical system composed of many particles. Gibbs also worked on the application of Maxwell's equations
Maxwell's equations
to problems in physical optics
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Oliver Heaviside
Oliver Heaviside
Oliver Heaviside
FRS[1] (/ˈɒlɪvər ˈhɛvisaɪd/; 18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis
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Woldemar Voigt
Woldemar Voigt
Woldemar Voigt
(German: [foːkt]; 2 September 1850 – 13 December 1919) was a German physicist, who taught at the Georg August University of Göttingen. Voigt eventually went on to head the Mathematical Physics
Physics
Department at Göttingen
Göttingen
and was succeeded in 1914 by Peter Debye, who took charge of the theoretical department of the Physical Institute. In 1921, Debye was succeeded by Max Born.Contents1 Biography 2 The Voigt transformation 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Voigt was born in Leipzig, and died in Göttingen. He was a student of Franz Ernst Neumann.[1] He worked on crystal physics, thermodynamics and electro-optics. His main work was the Lehrbuch der Kristallphysik (textbook on crystal physics), first published in 1910. He discovered the Voigt effect
Voigt effect
in 1898
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Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro
Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro (Italian: [ɡreˈɡɔːrjo ˈrittʃi kurˈbastro]; 12 January 1853 – 6 August 1925) was an Italian mathematician born in Lugo di Romagna. He is most famous as the inventor of tensor calculus, but also published important works in other fields. With his former student Tullio Levi-Civita, he wrote his most famous single publication,[1] a pioneering work on the calculus of tensors, signing it as Gregorio Ricci
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Cross Product
In mathematics and vector algebra, the cross product or vector product (occasionally directed area product to emphasize the geometric significance) is a binary operation on two vectors in three-dimensional space (R3) and is denoted by the symbol ×. Given two linearly independent vectors a and b, the cross product, a ×
×
b, is a vector that is perpendicular to both a and b and thus normal to the plane containing them. It has many applications in mathematics, physics, engineering, and computer programming. It should not be confused with dot product (projection product). If two vectors have the same direction (or have the exact opposite direction from one another, i.e. are not linearly independent) or if either one has zero length, then their cross product is zero
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Roland Weitzenböck
Roland Weitzenböck (26 May 1885 – 24 July 1955) was an Austrian mathematician working on differential geometry who introduced the Weitzenböck connection. He was appointed professor of mathematics at the University of Amsterdam in 1923 at the initiative of Brouwer, after Hermann Weyl had turned down Brouwer’s offer.Contents1 Biography 2 Publications 3 See also 4 Notes 5 External linksBiography[edit] Roland Weitzenböck was born in Kremsmünster, Austria-Hungary. He studied from 1902 to 1904 at the Technical Military Academy Mödling (now HTL Vienna) and was a captain in the Austrian army. He then studied at the University of Vienna, where he graduated in 1910 with the dissertation Zum System von 3 Strahlenkomplexen im 4-dimensionalen Raum (The system of 3-rays complexes in 4-dimensional space). After further studies at Bonn and Göttingen, he became professor at the University of Graz in 1912
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L. E. J. Brouwer
Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer ForMemRS[1] (/ˈbraʊ.ər/; Dutch: [ˈlœy̯tsə(n) ɛɣˈbɛrtəs jɑn ˈbrʌu̯ər]; 27 February 1881 – 2 December 1966), usually cited as L. E. J. Brouwer but known to his friends as Bertus, was a Dutch mathematician and philosopher, who worked in topology, set theory, measure theory and complex analysis.[2][4][5] He was the founder of the mathematical philosophy of intuitionism.Contents1 Biography 2 Bibliography2.1 In English translation3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Early in his career, Brouwer proved a number of theorems that were in the emerging field of topology. The main results were his fixed point theorem, the topological invariance of degree, and the topological invariance of dimension. The most popular of the three among mathematicians is the first one called the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem
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Parallel Transport
In geometry, parallel transport is a way of transporting geometrical data along smooth curves in a manifold. If the manifold is equipped with an affine connection (a covariant derivative or connection on the tangent bundle), then this connection allows one to transport vectors of the manifold along curves so that they stay parallel with respect to the connection. The parallel transport for a connection thus supplies a way of, in some sense, moving the local geometry of a manifold along a curve: that is, of connecting the geometries of nearby points. There may be many notions of parallel transport available, but a specification of one — one way of connecting up the geometries of points on a curve — is tantamount to providing a connection. In fact, the usual notion of connection is the infinitesimal analog of parallel transport
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Vector (mathematics And Physics)
When used without any further description, vector usually refers either to:Most generally, an element of a vector space In physics and geometry, a Euclidean vector
Euclidean vector
or a direction vector, used to represent physical quantities that have both magnitude and directionVector can also have a variety of different meanings depending on context. Vectors[edit]An element of a vector spaceAn element of the real coordinate space Rn Basis vector, one of a set of vectors (a "basis") that, in linear combination, can represent every vector in a given vector space Colum
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Constant Curvature
In mathematics, constant curvature is a concept from differential geometry. Here, curvature refers to the sectional curvature of a space (more precisely a manifold) and is a single number determining its local geometry. The sectional curvature is said to be constant if it has the same value at every point and for every two-dimensional tangent plane at that point. For example, a sphere is a surface of constant positive curvature. Classification[edit] The Riemannian manifolds of constant curvature can be classified into the following three cases:elliptic geometry – constant positive sectional curvature Euclidean geometry
Euclidean geometry
– constant vanishing sectional curvature hyperbolic geometry – constant negative sectional curvature.Properties[edit]Every space of constant curvature is locally symmetric, i.e
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Levi-Civita
Tullio Levi-Civita, FRS[1][2] /ˈtʊlioʊ ˈlɛvi ˈtʃɪvɪtə/ (29 March 1873 – 29 December 1941; Italian pronunciation: [ˈtullio ˈlɛːvi ˈtʃiːvita]) was an Italian mathematician, most famous for his work on absolute differential calculus (tensor calculus) and its applications to the theory of relativity, but who also made significant contributions in other areas. He was a pupil of Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro, the inventor of tensor calculus
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