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Jamshīd Al-Kāshī
Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Masʿūd al-Kāshī (or al-Kāshānī)[1] (Persian: غیاث الدین جمشید کاشانی‎ Ghiyās-ud-dīn Jamshīd Kāshānī) (c
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Ethnicity
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, society, culture or nation.[1][2] Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art, and physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population, often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Observatory
An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events. Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geophysical, oceanography and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed
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Stars
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth
Earth
is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth
Earth
during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. Historically, the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms, the brightest of which gained proper names. Astronomers have assembled star catalogues that identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations
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Middle East
The Middle East[note 1] is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East
Near East
(as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.[2] Minorities of the Middle East
Middle East
include Jews, Baloch, Greeks, Assyrians, and other Arameans, Berbers, Circassians
Circassians
(including Kabardians), Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community
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Sun
The Sun
Sun
is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma,[14][15] with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process.[16] It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers, i.e. 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.[17] About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, and iron.[18] The Sun
Sun
is a G-type main-sequence star
G-type main-sequence star
(G2V) based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally referred to as a yellow dwarf
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Moon
The Moon
The Moon
is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter's satellite Io, the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
among those whose densities are known. The Moon
The Moon
is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
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Persian People
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.[3][2] They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language,[4][5][6] as well as closely related languages.[7][8] The ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered modern-day Iran
Iran
by the early 10th century BC.[9][10] Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires,[11][12] well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world.[13][14] Th
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Timurid Dynasty
The Timurid dynasty (Persian: تیموریان‎), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim[1] dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
lineage[2][3][4][5] descended from the warlord Timur
Timur
(also known as Tamerlane). The word "Gurkani" derived from "gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kuragan" meaning "son-in-law",[6] as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan,[7][full citation needed] founder of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
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University
A university (Latin: universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines
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Goharshad
Goharshād Begum
Begum
(Persian: گوهرشاد‎ Gowharšād; meaning "joyful jewel" or "shining jewel"; alternative spelling: Gawharshād; died 19 July 1457) was a wife of Shāhrukh, the Emperor of the Timurid Empire of Herāt.Contents1 Life1.1 Marriage 1.2 Later years2 Burial place 3 Legacy 4 ReferencesLife[edit] She was the daughter of Giāth ud-Din Tarkhān, an important and influential noble during Tīmur's reign. According to family traditions, the title Tarkhān was given to the family by Genghis Khan personally. Marriage[edit] Goharshad
Goharshad
was married to Sharukh probably in 1388, certainly before 1394 when their son, Ulugh Beg
Ulugh Beg
was born. It was a successful marriage, according to the ballads of Herat
Herat
which sing of Shahrukh's love for her
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Madrasah
Madrasa
Madrasa
(Arabic: مدرسة‎, madrasah, pl. مدارس, madāris) is the Arabic
Arabic
word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university. The word is variously transliterated madrasah, medresa, madrassa, madraza, medrese, etc. In the West, the word usually refers to a specific type of religious school or college for the study of the Islamic religion, though this may not be the only subject studied
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Kalam
ʿIlm al-Kalām (Arabic: عِلْم الكَلام‎, literally "science of discourse"[1]), usually foreshortened to kalam and sometimes called "Islamic scholastic theology",[2] is the study of Islamic doctrine ('aqa'id).[2] It was born out of the need to establish and defend the tenets of Islamic faith against doubters and detractors.[3] A scholar of kalam is referred to as a mutakallim (plural mutakallimūn) as distinguished from philosophers, jurists, and scientists.[4] The Arabic
Arabic
term kalam means "speech, word, utterance" among other things, and its use regarding Islamic theology is derived where the Quran
Quran
mentions (kalām Allāh) "Word of God".[5] Murtada Mutahhari describes Kalām as discussing "the fundamental Islamic beliefs and doctrines which are necessary for a Muslim to believe in
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Earth
Earth
Earth
is the third planet from the Sun
Sun
and the only object in the Universe
Universe
known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth
Earth
formed over 4.5 billion years ago.[24][25][26] Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun
Sun
and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth
Earth
year
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Astronomical Object
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.[1] In astronomy, the terms "object" and "body" are often used interchangeably. However, an astronomical body or celestial body is a single, tightly bound contiguous entity, while an astronomical or celestial object is a complex, less cohesively bound structure, that may consist of multiple bodies or even other objects with substructures. Examples for astronomical objects include planetary systems, star clusters, nebulae and galaxies, while asteroids, moons, planets, and stars are astronomical bodies
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Equatorial Coordinate System
The equatorial coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system widely used to specify the positions of celestial objects. It may be implemented in spherical or rectangular coordinates, both defined by an origin at the centre of Earth, a fundamental plane consisting of the projection of Earth's equator onto the celestial sphere (forming the celestial equator), a primary direction towards the vernal equinox, and a right-handed convention.[1][2]The equatorial coordinate system using spherical coordinates. The fundamental plane is formed by projection of Earth's equator onto the celestial sphere, forming the celestial equator (blue). The primary direction is established by projecting Earth's orbit
Earth's orbit
onto the celestial sphere, forming the ecliptic (red), and setting up the ascending node of the ecliptic on the celestial equator, forming the vernal equinox
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