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Jalalabad
Jalālābād /dʒəˈlæləˌbæd/, or Dzalalabad, formerly called Ādīnapūr as documented by the 7th-century Xuanzang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. It is the capital of Nangarhar Province. Jalalabad
Jalalabad
is located at the junction of the Kabul River
Kabul River
and the Kunar River. It is linked by an approximately 150-kilometre (95 mi) highway with Kabul
Kabul
to the west, and a 130-kilometre (80 mi) highway with the Pakistani city of Peshawar
Peshawar
to the east
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Rashidun Caliphate
The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎ al-Khilāfa-al-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad
Muhammad
after his death in 632 CE (AH 11). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn)
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Indo-Greek Kingdom
The Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdoms or were partly Hellenistic
Hellenistic
kingdoms covering various parts of Afghanistan, and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan
Pakistan
and northwestern India),[1][2][3][4][5][6] during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another. Euthydemus I
Euthydemus I
was, according to Polybius,[7] a Magnesian Greek. His son, Demetrius I, founder of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdom, was therefore of Greek ethnicity at least by his father
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Kushan Empire
The Kushan
Kushan
Empire
Empire
(Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Bactrian: Κυϸανο, Kushano; Sanskrit: कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS: Guṣāṇa-vaṃśa; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Parthian: Kušan-xšaθr[8]) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century
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Indo-Parthian Kingdom
The Indo-Parthian Kingdom was ruled by the Gondopharid dynasty and other rulers who were a group of ancient kings from Central Asia that ruled parts of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwestern India, during or slightly before the 1st century AD
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Sasanian Empire
Temporarily controlled during the Byzantine– Sasanian
Sasanian
War of 602–628:  Abkhazia[12]  Russia (  Dagestan
Dagestan
and  Chechnya)  Turkey  Lebanon  Israel   Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
( West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza strip)[13]  Jordan  EgyptPart of a series on theHistory of IranMythological historyPishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynastyAncient periodBCPrehistory of Iran Ancient Times–4000Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000Proto-Elamite 3200–2700Jiroft culture c. 3100 – c. 2200Elam 2700–539 Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire 2400–2150Kassites c. 1500 – c
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Kidarites
The Kidarites
Kidarites
(Chinese: 寄多羅 Jiduolo[1]) were a dynasty of the "Ki" clan named after their ruler Kidara. They were part of the complex of tribes known collectively as Xionites
Xionites
or "Hunas"
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Alchon Huns
The Alchon
Alchon
Huns, also known as the Alchono, Alxon, Alkhon, Alkhan, Alakhana and Walxon, were a nomadic people who established states in Central Asia
Central Asia
and South Asia
South Asia
during the 5th and 6th centuries CE. They were first mentioned as being located in Paropamisus, and later expanded south-east, into the Punjab
Punjab
and central India, as far as Eran and Kausambi. The Alchon
Alchon
invasion of South Asia
South Asia
greatly weakened, and contributed to the fall of, the Gupta Empire. The names of the Alchon kings are known from their extensive coinage and from inscriptions in Buddhist
Buddhist
stupas. To the Indians, they were one of the Hūṇa peoples (or Hunas),[1] whose origins are controversial
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Hephthalite Empire
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560. They were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin, west to Sogdia
Sogdia
and south through Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to northern India. They were a tribal confederation and included both nomadic and settled urban communities. They were part of the four major "Hunic" states known collectively as Xionites
Xionites
or "Hunas", being preceded by the Kidarites, and succeeded by the Alchon Huns
Huns
and lastly the Nezak Huns. The Sveta Huna or White Huns
Huns
who invaded northern India
India
are probably the Hephthalites, but the exact relation is not clear. The stronghold of the Hephthalites was Tokharistan on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush, in what is present-day northeastern Afghanistan
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Nezak Huns
The Nezak
Nezak
Huns
Huns
were one of the four groups of Huna people
Huna people
in the area of the Hindu Kush. The Nezak
Nezak
kings, with their characteristic gold bull's-head crown, ruled from Ghazni
Ghazni
and Kapisa. While their history is obscured, the Nezak's left significant coinage documenting their polity's prosperity. They are called Nezak
Nezak
because of the inscriptions on their coins, which often bear the mention " Nezak
Nezak
Shah". They were the last of the four major "Hunic" states known collectively as Xionites
Xionites
or "Hunas", their predecessors being, in chronological order, the Kidarites, the Hephthalites, and the Alchon. The term 'Hun' may cause confusion
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Principality Of Chaghaniyan
The Principality of Chaghaniyan, known in Arabic
Arabic
sources as al-Saghaniyan, was a local Iranian dynasty, which ruled the Chaghaniyan
Chaghaniyan
region from the early 7th-century to the late 8th-century. The rulers of the region were known by their titles of “Chaghan Khudah” (Middle Iranian; Čagīnīgān Xvaday, meaning “the lord of Chaghaniyan”).a[›]Contents1 History 2 Notes 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesHistory[edit]Coin of a Chaghan Khudah or Hephthalite
Hephthalite
ruler written in Sogdian.During the early 7th-century, Chaghaniyan
Chaghaniyan
became independent from Hephthalite
Hephthalite
rule, and came under the control of local rulers known as the “Chaghan Khudah”.[1] During the Muslim conquest of Persia, the Chaghan Khudah aided their kinsmen, the Sasanians, during their struggle against the Rashidun Arabs
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Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
The Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana
Sogdiana
in Central Asia
Central Asia
from 250 to 125 BC. It was centered on the north of present-day Afghanistan
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Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Tahirid Dynasty
The Tahirid dynasty
Tahirid dynasty
(Persian: طاهریان‎, Tâhiriyân) was a dynasty, of Persian[3] dihqan[4] origin, that governed the Abbasid province of Khorasan from 821 to 873 and the city of Baghdad
Baghdad
from 820 until 891. The dynasty was founded by Tahir ibn Husayn, a leading general in the service of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. Their capital in Khorasan was initially located at Merv
Merv
but was later moved to Nishapur
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