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Jainism
JAINISM (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ ), traditionally known as JAIN DHARMA, is an ancient Indian religion . Followers of Jainism
Jainism
are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as Tirthankaras , with the first being Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
, who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahavira around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism
Jainism
is an eternal dharma with the Tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology
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Arihant (Jainism)
ARIHANT (Hindi: अरिहंत , Jain Prakrit: अरिहन्त , Pali: अर्हत् , Arihanta) may refer to: * Arihant (Jainism) , in Jainism, a siddha who has not yet died * Arhat
Arhat
, in Buddhism, a person who has attained nirvaana, the perfected one* Arihant class submarine , a class
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Religious Text
RELIGIOUS TEXTS (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin
Latin
scriptura, meaning "a writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their religious practice or set of beliefs. Religious texts may be used to provide meaning and purpose, evoke a deeper connection with the divine , convey religious truths, promote religious experience , foster communal identity, and guide individual and communal religious practice. Religious texts often communicate the practices or values of a religious traditions and can be looked to as a set of guiding principles which dictate physical, mental, spiritual, or historical elements considered important to a specific religion
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Diwali
DIWALI or DEEPAVALI is the Hindu
Hindu
festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere)
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Dilwara Temples
The DILWARA TEMPLES (Gujarati : અાબુના દેલવાડા) of India
India
are located about 2½ kilometres from Mount Abu , Rajasthan\'s only hill station. These Jain
Jain
temples were built by Vimal Shah and designed by Vastapul-Tejpal, Jain
Jain
laymen , between the 11th and 13th centuries AD and are famous for their use of marble and intricate marble carvings. The five marble temples of Dilwara
Dilwara
are a sacred pilgrimage place of the Jains. Some consider them to be one of the most beautiful Jain
Jain
pilgrimage sites in the world. The temples have an opulent entranceway, the simplicity in architecture reflecting Jain
Jain
values like honesty and frugality. The temples are in the midst of a range of forested hills. A high wall shrouds the temple complex
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Śvētāmbara
The ŚVēTāMBARA (/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/ ; Sanskrit : श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism
Jainism
, the other being the Digambara
Digambara
. Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics ' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara
Digambara
"sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity. Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha . Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara , Māllīnātha , was a woman
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Bhaktamara Stotra
BHAKTAMARA STOTRA is a famous Jain
Jain
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
prayer. It was composed by Acharya Manatunga (seventh century CE). The name Bhaktamara comes from a combination of two sanskrit names, "Bhakta" (Devotee) and "Amar" (Immortal). The prayer praises Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
(adinath) , the first Tirthankara
Tirthankara
of Jainism. There are forty-eight verses in total. The last verse gives the name of the author Manatunga. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Legend * 3 History * 4 Verses * 5 Art * 6 References * 7 Sources OVERVIEW Illustrative of Rishabhanatha, Folio Bhaktamara Stotra
Stotra
Bhaktamar verses have been recited as a stotra (prayer), and sung as a stavan (hymn ), somewhat interchangeably
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Jai Jinendra
JAI JINENDRA! ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: जय जिनेन्द्र Jaya Jinēndra) is a common greeting used by the Jains . The phrase means "Honor to the Supreme Jinas (Tirthankaras )" The reverential greeting is a combination of two sanskrit words: Jai and Jinendra The word, Jai is used to praise somebody. In Jai Jinendra, it is used to praise the qualities of the Jinas (conquerors). The word Jinendra is a compound-word derived from the word Jina, referring to a human being who has conquered all inner passions and possess Kevala Gyan (pure infinite knowledge), and the word "Indra," which means chief or lord. SEE ALSO * God in Jainism
Jainism
* Mahavira
Mahavira
NOTES * ^ A B Rankin 2013 , p. 37. * ^ Sangave 2001 , p. 16. * ^ Sangave 2001 , p. 164.REFERENCES * Rankin, Aidan (2013), "Chapter 1
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Kalpa Sūtra
The KALPA SūTRA (Sanskrit : कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras , notably Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
and Mahavira , including the latter's Nirvāṇa . Bhadrabahu
Bhadrabahu
I is considered the author of the text and it is traditionally said to have been composed about one hundred and fifty years after the Nirvāṇa of Mahavira (traditionally 599 – 527 BCE). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Importance * 3 See also * 4 References * 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Sources * 5 External links HISTORYWithin the six sections of the Jain
Jain
literary corpus belonging to the Svetambara school, it is classed as one of the Cheda Sūtras. This Sutra contains detailed life histories and, from the mid-15th century, was frequently illustrated with miniature painting
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Kevala Jnana
KEVALA JñāNA means omniscience in Jainism
Jainism
and is roughly translated as absolute knowledge or supreme knowledge. Kevala jnana is believed to be an intrinsic quality of all souls. This quality is masked by karmic particles that surround the soul. Every soul has the potential to obtain omniscience by shedding off these karmic particles. Jain scriptures speak of twelve stages through which the soul achieves this goal. A soul who has attained kevala jnana is called a kevalin (केवलिन्). According to the Jains, only kevalins can comprehend objects in all aspects and manifestations; others are only capable of partial knowledge. The views of two sects of Jainism, Digambara
Digambara
and Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
Jains differ on the subject of kevalins
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Gunasthana
GUṇASTHāNA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "levels of virtue") are the fourteen stages of spiritual development and growth through which a soul gradually passes before it attains moksha (liberation). According to Jainism
Jainism
, it is a state of soul from a complete dependence on karma to the state of complete dissociation from it. Here the word virtue does not mean an ordinary moral quality, but it stands for the nature of soul — knowledge, belief and conduct. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 The Fourteen stages * 3 The destruction of causes of bondage * 4 The destruction of karmas * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 References OVERVIEWThe fourteen Gunasthāna represents the soul's gradual manifestation of the innate qualities of knowledge, belief and conduct in a more and more perfect form. Following are the stages of spiritual development: HEAD GUNASTHāNA MEANING BELIEF (Rationality in perception) 1
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Kundakunda
ACHARYA KUNDAKUNDA is a revered Digambara
Digambara
Jain monk and philosopher. He authored many Jain texts such as: Samayasara , Niyamasara , Pancastikayasara , Pravachanasara , Atthapahuda and Barasanuvekkha. He occupies the highest place in the tradition of the Jain acharyas . Modern scholarship has found it difficult to locate him chronologically, with a possible low date in the 2nd-3rd centuries CE and a late date in 8th century. CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Biography * 3 Thought * 4 Works * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links NAMESHis proper name was Padmanandin, he is popularly referred to as Kundakunda
Kundakunda
possibly because the modern village of Kondakunde in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
might represent his native home. A.N
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Samantabhadra (Jain Monk)
SAMANTABHADRA was a Digambara
Digambara
acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada . The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami but before Pujyapada . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Thought * 3 Works * 4 Praise * 5 References * 6 Sources LIFESamantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE. He was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
. He was a poet, logician, eulogist and an accomplished linguist. He is credited with spreading Jainism
Jainism
in southern India. Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka (the condition of insatiable hunger)
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Samvatsari
SAṃVATSARī (INTERNATIONAL FORGIVENESS DAY) is the last day of Paryushana
Paryushana
—the eight days festival of Switember Jain and ten days festival of Digamber Jain . It is the holiest day of the Jain calendar . Many Jains observe a complete fast on this day. The whole day is spent in prayers and contemplation. A yearly, elaborate penitential retreat called saṃvatsarī pratikramana is performed on this day. After the pratikramana Jains seek forgiveness from all the creatures of the world whom they may have harmed knowingly or unknowingly by uttering the phrase— Micchami Dukkadam , "Khamau Sa" , or "Khamat Khamna". As a matter of ritual, they personally greet their friends and relatives Micchami Dukkadam . No private quarrel or dispute may be carried beyond Saṃvatsarī and messages , telephone calls are made to the outstation friends and relatives asking their forgiveness. REFERENCES * ^ Shah, Nathubhai (1998)
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Haribhadra
HARIBHADRA SURI was a Svetambara mendicant Jain leader and author. There are multiple contradictory dates assigned to his birth. According to tradition, he lived c. 459–529 CE. However, in 1919, a Jain monk named Jinavijayi pointed out that given his familiarity with Dharmakirti , a more likely choice would be sometime after 650. In his writings, Haribhadra
Haribhadra
identifies himself as a student of Jinabhadra and Jinadatta of the Vidyadhara Kula. There are several, somewhat contradictory, accounts of his life. He wrote several books on Yoga, such as the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya and on comparative religion, outlining and analyzing the theories of Hindus, Buddhists and Jains
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