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Jagadish Chandra Bose
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose,[2] CSI,[3] CIE,[4] FRS[5] (/boʊs/;[6] Bengali: [dʒɔgod̪iʃ tʃɔnd̪ro bosu]; 30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937), also spelled Jagdish and Jagadis,[7] was a polymath, physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and archaeologist, and an early writer of science fiction.[8] Living in British India, he pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent.[9] IEEE
IEEE
named him one of the fathers of radio science.[10] Bose is considered the father of Bengali science fiction, and also invented the crescograph, a device for measuring the growth of plants. A crater on the moon has been named in his honour.[11] Born in Mymensingh, Bengal Presidency
Bengal Presidency
(present-day Bangladesh), during British governance of India,[12] Bose graduated from St
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Order Of The Star Of India
The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India
Order of the Star of India
is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
in 1861. The Order includes members of three classes (regardless of gender):Knight Grand Commander (GCSI) Knight Commander (KCSI) Companion (CSI)No appointments have been made since the 1948 New Year Honours, shortly after the Partition of India
Partition of India
in 1947. With the death in 2009 of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Alwar, the order became dormant. The motto of the order is Heaven's light our guide
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Knight Bachelor
The dignity of Knight
Knight
Bachelor is the most basic and lowest rank of a man who has been knighted by the monarch but not as a member of one of the organised orders of chivalry; it is currently a part of the British honours system.[1] Knights Bachelor are the most ancient sort of British knight (the rank existed during the 13th century reign of King Henry III), but Knights Bachelor rank below knights of chivalric orders. There is no female counterpart to Knight
Knight
Bachelor
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Biologist
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.[2] Biologists involved in fundamental research attempt to explore and further explain the underlying mechanisms that govern the functioning of living matter. Biologists involved in applied research attempt to develop or improve more specific processes and understanding, in fields such as medicine and industry. While the term biologist can apply to any scientist studying biology, most biologists research and specialise in specific fields. In this way, biologists investigate large-scale organism interactions, whole multicellular organisms, organs, tissues, cells, and micro-scale molecular processes
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Physicist
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. [1][2] Physicists generally are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, and usually frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, to molecular length scales of chemical and biological interest, to cosmological length scales encompassing the Universe
Universe
as a whole
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Polymath
A polymath (Greek: πολυμαθής, polymathēs, "having learned much,"[1] Latin: homo universalis, "universal man"[citation needed]) is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. In Western Europe, the first work to use polymathy in its title (De Polymathia tractatio: integri operis de studiis veterum) was published in 1603 by Johann von Wower, a Hamburg philosopher.[2][3][4][5] Wower defined polymathy as "knowledge of various matters, drawn from all kinds of studies [...] ranging freely through all the fields of the disciplines, as far as the human mind, with unwearied industry, is able to pursue them".[3] Wower lists erudition, literature, philology, philomathy and polyhistory as synonyms
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Optics
Optics
Optics
is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.[1] Optics
Optics
usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties.[1] Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical electromagnetic description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice. Practical optics is usually done using simplified models. The most common of these, geometric optics, treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces
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Plant Science
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze".[1][2][3] Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress
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Indian Subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate
Indian Plate
and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the Himalayas
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John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, OM, PC, PRS (/ˈreɪli/; 12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics
Physics
in 1904. He also discovered the phenomenon now called Rayleigh scattering, which can be used to explain why the sky is blue, and predicted the existence of the surface waves now known as Rayleigh waves. Rayleigh's textbook, The Theory of Sound, is still referred to by acoustic engineers today. The Rayleigh number is named in his honour. It is a dimensionless number associated with natural convection.Contents1 Biography 2 Religious views 3 Honours and awards 4 Bibliography 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksBiography[edit] Strutt was born on 12 November 1842 at Langford Grove in Maldon, Essex
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University Of London
The University of London
London
is a collegiate[a] and a federal research university located in London, England
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IEEE
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey. It was formed in 1963 from the amalgamation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers. Today, it is the world's largest association of technical professionals with more than 420,000 members in over 160 countries around the world
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List Of People Considered Father Or Mother Of A Field
The following is a list of significant men and women known for being the father, mother, or considered the founders mostly in Western societies in a field, listed by category. In most non-science fields, the title of being the "father" is debatable.Contents1 Fine art 2 Games 3 Humanities 4 Military 5 Nations 6 Natural and social sciences 7 Sports 8 Technology8.1 Fields 8.2 Computing 8.3 Inventions9 Towns, cities, and regions 10 Transport 11 See also 12 ReferencesFine art[edit]Subject Father/mother ReasonCowboy sculpture Frederic Remington[1] Created first bronze cowboy sculpture in 1895Games[edit]Subject Father/mother Reason3D gaming Yu Suzuki John Carmack Creator of Hang-On, Virtua Racing, Virtua Fighter
Virtua Fighter
and Shenmue Creator of Wolfenstein 3D
Wolfenstein 3D
and DoomCollectible Card Game Richard Garfield Creator of Magic:The GatheringMiniature wargaming H. G
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Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology,[1] is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.[2][3] In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology,[4] while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi
Lomekwi
in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, the study of fossil remains
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Botany
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze".[1][2][3] Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress
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Biology
Biology
Biology
is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.[1] Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches. Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology
Biology
recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy[2] to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis
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