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Jafar Sultan Revolt
Riots and protestsFebruary 1999 Kurdish protests Mahabad riotsThe Jafar Sultan revolt (Kurdish: شۆڕشی جافر سان، Persian: شورش جعفر سلطان) refers to a Kurdish tribal revolt in Pahlavi Iran
Pahlavi Iran
which erupted in 1931,[1] and was one of the early tribal-nationalist Kurdish revolts against central Iranian rule during the early stage of Kurdish separatism in Iran.Contents1 Background 2 Revolt 3 See also 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] Jafar Sultan of Hewraman
Hewraman
region took control of the area between Marivan
Marivan
and north of Halabja
Halabja
and remained independent until 1925
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Kurdish Separatism In Iran
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. While it often refers to full political secession,[1] separatist groups may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.[2] While some critics[who?] may equate separatism with religious segregation, racist segregation, or sexist segregation, most separatists[who?] argue that separation by choice may serve useful purposes and is not the same as government-enforced segregation. There is some academic debate about this definition, and in particular how it relates to secessionism, as has been discussed online.[3] Separatist groups practice a form of identity politics, or political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice visited upon members of certain social groups
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Arab Separatism In Khuzestan
OngoingSeveral revolts suppressed Political crackdown on civil disobedience in IranBelligerents Sublime State of Iran
Iran
(1922–1924) Sheikhdom of Mohammerah
Mohammerah
(1922–1924) Imperial St
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Turkish War Of Independence
Decisive[2][3] Turkish victory[4]Overthrow of the Ottoman sultanate Withdrawal of Allied forces from Anatolia
Anatolia
and Thrace Establishment of the Republic of Turkey Starting of the series of reforms led by AtatürkBelligerents Turkish National MovementGrand National Assembly (after 1920)Kuva-yi Nizamiye Kuva-yi Milliye
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Greco-Turkish War (1919–22)
Decisive Turkish victory[2][3][4] Population exchange between the two nationsTreaty of LausanneTerritorial changes Lands initially ceded to Greece
Greece
from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire<

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Turkish–Armenian War
Decisive Turkish victoryTreaty of Alexandropol Treaty of Moscow Treaty of KarsBelligerents Turkey ArmeniaCommanders and leaders Kâzım Karabekir Halit Karsıalan Rüştü Pasha Osman Nuri Koptagel Cavit Erdel Kâzım Orbay Drastamat Kanayan Hamo Ohanjanyan Ruben Ter-Minasian Christophor AraratovStrength 50,000[2][3] –60,000[4][5] 20,000[6]Casualties and losses 60,000–98,000[7] or 198,000–250,000[7][8][9] Armenian civilians killedv t eTurkish War of IndependenceGreco-Turkish War Greek landing at SmyrnaOccupationUrla Malgaç Bergama Erbeyli Erikli Tellidede Aydın Akbaş 1920 Summer Offensive Gediz 1st İnönü 2nd İnönü Kütahya–Eskişehir Sakarya Great OffensiveDumlupınar Capture of SmyrnaTurkish–Armenian War Oltu Sarikamish Kars AlexandropolFranco-Turkish War Marash Urfa Aintab Karboğazı KanlıgeçitRevolts Ahmet Anzavur İzmit Geyve
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Franco-Turkish War
Turkish victory Cilicia
Cilicia
Peace Treaty Treaty of Ankara Treaty of LausanneBelligerents France French Armenian Legion Grand National Assembly Kuva-yi MilliyeCommanders and leaders Henri Gouraud Ali Fuat Pasha Ali Saip Pasha Kılıç Ali Pasha Şefik "Özdemir" BeyStrength: Mar. 1920: 25–30,000[2] May 1920: ~40,000 men[3] Feb
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Revolts During The Turkish War Of Independence
A number of revolts against the Turkish Revolutionaries
Turkish Revolutionaries
broke out during the Turkish War of Independence. Kemal Atatürk, who was the leader of the nationalist government of Turkey during the war of independence was primarily concerned about subduing the internal revolts and establishing domestic security. To achieve this, the parliament passed the Law of Treachery to the Homeland and established Mobile Gendarmerie Troops.[citation needed] These revolts had the effect of delaying the nationalist movement's struggle against the occupying foreign forces on several fronts
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Mahmud Barzanji Revolts
Revolts suppressed:Kingdom of Kurdistan abolished in 1924 Sheykh Mahmud retreats to underground Iraqi Kurdistan is merged into Mandatory Iraq (1926)Territorial changes Kingdom of Kurdistan reconquered by the BritishBelligerents Kingdom of Iraq (British administration) RAF Iraq CommandBarzinja tenantry and tribesmen Hamavand tribe Sections of the Jaf, Jabbari, Sheykh Bizayni and Shuan tribes Kingdom of KurdistanKurdish National ArmyCommanders and leaders Mahmud BarzanjiKarim Fattah BegStrength Two British brigades 500v t eIraqi–Kurdish conflictEarly conflictsMahmud Barzanji revolts Ahmed Barzani revolt 1943 Barzani revoltMain phaseFirst Iraqi–Kurdish War Second Iraqi–Kurdish War PUK insurgency Arabization campaigns Kurdish rebellion of 1983 Al-Anfal Campaign 1991 uprisingsLater phase1994–97 Civil War 2003 US invasion 2017 Iraqi–Kurdish c
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Franco-Syrian War
France French West Africa[1] Arab Kingdom of SyriaArab militiasCommanders and leaders Henri Gouraud Mariano Goybet King Faisal Yusuf al-'Azma † Arab militias:Ibrahim Hananu[6] Subhi Barakat[6] Saleh al-AliStrength70,000 men[1]Casualties and losses5,000 killedv t eFranco–Syrian WarEngagementsSyrian Coastal Mountains Aleppo Region Maysalun DamascusThe Franco-Syrian War
Franco-Syrian War
took place during 1920 between the Hashemite rulers of the newly established Arab Kingdom of Syria
Arab Kingdom of Syria
and France. During a series of engagements, which climaxed in the Battle of Maysalun, French forces defeated the forces of the Hashemite
Hashemite
monarch King Faisal, and his supporters, entering Damascus
Damascus
on July 24, 1920
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Iraqi Revolt Against The British
British Empire
British Empire
victoryGreater autonomy given to Iraq Faysal ibn Husayn installed as KingBelligerents British Empire  India Iraqi rebelsShia tribesmen Sunni tribesmen Kurdish and Tyari tribesmenCommanders and leaders Sir Arnold Wilson Shalan abu Al-Joun Mehdi Al-Khalissi Muhammad Hasan Abi al-Mahasin Mahmud Barzanji[1] Other heads of iraqi tribesmenStrength120,000 men[2][dubious – discuss] (later reinforced with an additional 15,414 men)[2] 63 aircraft[2] 131,000[3]Casualties and losses
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Intercommunal Conflict In Mandatory Palestine
Jewish National Council (Yishuv) HaganahFOSH Peulot Meyuhadot Irgun
Irgun
(1931-48) Lehi (1940-48) Arab Higher Committee
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Adwan Rebellion
British Victory Sultan al-Adwan's defeat and exileBelligerents Sultan al-Adwan's forces United Kingdom Abdullah I's forces Hashemite allied tribesmen:Sheykh Minwar al-HadidCommanders and leadersSultan al-Adwan Frederick Peake Emir AbdullahStrength300 horsemen 500 warriors[1] UnknownCasualties and losses86 (including 13 women) UnknownAbout 100 killed Adwan Rebellion or the Balqa
Balqa
Revolt[1] was the largest uprising against the British mandate and the newly installed Transjordanian government, headed by Mezhar Ruslan, during its first years. The rebellion was initiated in the early months of 1923, under the slogan " Jordan
Jordan
for Jordanians", but was quickly crushed with the assistance of the British RAF
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Great Syrian Revolt
France Syria LebanonSyrian rebelsCommanders and leaders Maurice Sarrail Roger Michaud Maurice Gamelin Henry de Jouvenel Charles Andréa Sultan Pasha al-Atrash Fawzi al-Qawuqji Hasan al-Kharrat † Said al-As Izz al-Din al-Halabi Nasib al-Bakri Muhammad al-Ashmar Ramadan al-Shallash
Ramadan al-Shallash
(defected to France)v t eGreat Syrian RevoltSalkhad al-Kafr al-Mazraa al-Musayfirah al-Suwayda Hama Damascus RashayaThe
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Unification Of Saudi Arabia
Saudi
Saudi
takeover of central and northern parts of Arabia:End of the Rashidi Emirate of Jabal Shammar
Emirate of Jabal Shammar
and Kingdom of Hejaz. End
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Sheikh Said Rebellion
The Sheikh Said
Sheikh Said
Rebellion (Kurdish: Serhildana Seîdê Pîran‎, Turkish: Şeyh Said İsyanı) or Genç Incident (Kurdish: Genç Hâdisesi‎) was a Kurdish rebellion aimed at reviving the Islamic caliphate and sultanate. It used elements of Kurdish nationalism to recruit.[6] It was led by Sheikh Said
Sheikh Said
and a group of former Ottoman soldiers also known as "Hamidiye". The rebellion was carried out by two Kurdish sub-groups, the Zaza and the Kurmanj.[7]Contents1 Background 2 Events 3 Result 4 References 5 SourcesBackground[edit] The Azadî was dominated by officers from the former Hamidiye, a Kurdish tribal militia established under the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to deal with the Armenians
Armenians
and sometimes even to keep the Qizilbash
Qizilbash
under control
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