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Jackson–Harmsworth Expedition
The Jackson–Harmsworth expedition
Jackson–Harmsworth expedition
to Franz Josef Land, 1894–97, was led by British Arctic explorer Frederick George Jackson
Frederick George Jackson
and financed by newspaper proprietor Alfred Harmsworth. Jackson had been misled by false maps into believing that Franz Joseph Land was a land mass that extended to the North Pole. The survey which was the main work of the expedition eventually proved that the land was in fact an archipelago, whose northernmost island stretched no further than 81°N.[1] The expedition party consisted of Albert Armitage, who made astronomical, meteorological and magnetic records, Reginald Koettlitz (physician and geologist), J.F
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Franz Josef Land
Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land (Russian: Земля́ Фра́нца-Ио́сифа, tr. Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa) is an archipelago, inhabited only by Russian military base personnel,[1] located in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea
Barents Sea
and Kara Sea, constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast
Arkhangelsk Oblast
in Russia. It consists of 191 islands, which cover an area of 16,134 square kilometers (6,229 sq mi), stretching 375 kilometers (233 mi) from east to west and 234 kilometers (145 mi) from north to south. The islands are categorized in three groups, a western, central and eastern, separated by the British Channel and the Austrian Strait. The central group is further divided into a northern and southern section by the Markham Strait
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Wilczek Land
Wilczek Land
Wilczek Land
(Russian: Земля Вильчека; Zemlya Vil'cheka, German: Wilczek-Land), is a large island located at 80°35′N 60°30′E / 80.58°N 60.5°E / 80.58; 60.5
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Arthur Island
Arthur Island
Arthur Island
(Russian: Остров Артура; Ostrov Artura) is an island in Franz Josef Land, Russia. It belongs administratively to the Arkhangelsk Oblast
Arkhangelsk Oblast
of the Russian Federation.[1]Contents1 Geography 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksGeography[edit] Arthur Island
Arthur Island
lies in the Queen Victoria Sea
Queen Victoria Sea
north of Zemlya Georga, relatively far from any other island. Its area is 111 km2 (43 sq mi) and its maximum height 275 m (902 ft).[2] Arthur Island
Arthur Island
is practically completely glacierized
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Becker Island
Becker Island
Becker Island
(Russian: Остров Беккера; Ostrov Bekkera) is an island in Franz Josef Land, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russian Arctic. Becker Island
Becker Island
was named after Moritz Alois Becker (1812-1887), the general secretary of Austrian Geographical Society.[1]Contents1 Geography 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksGeography[edit] Becker Island
Becker Island
is long and narrow, stretching from East to West. It is located straight south of Rainer Island. Its length is 14 km (8.7 mi) and its average width 3 km (1.9 mi). The Kupol Surova (Купол Сурова) ice dome covers the western part of the island.[2] The highest point of Becker Island
Becker Island
is a 165 m (541 ft) high summit located at the eastern end. The eastern half of this island is unglacierized
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Belaya Zemlya
Belaya Zemlya
Belaya Zemlya
(Russian: Белая Земля, literally "White Land") is a group of three cold, glaciated islands. It is a geographical subgroup of Franz Josef Land, Russian Federation.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Islands3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] This area was named Hvidtenland (Norwegian: "White Land") by Fridtjof Nansen, who reached this desolate place on August 5, 1895 during his polar expedition. In his map he drew four islands. Since the limit of permanent ice crosses Belaya Zemlya, it is often difficult to distinguish between land and sea
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Bruce Island
Coordinates: 80°03′N 50°00′E / 80.050°N 50.000°E / 80.050; 50.000Location of the Franz Josef Archipelago Bruce Island
Bruce Island
(Russian: Остров Брюса, translit. Ostrov Brjusa) is an island in Franz Josef Land, Russia. Its area is 191 square kilometres (74 sq mi). The highest point of the island is 301 metres (988 ft).[1] Except for a very small area at the western shoreline, Bruce Island
Bruce Island
is completely glacierized
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Hall Island (Arctic)
Hall Island (Russian: Остров Галля; Ostrov Gallya) is an island in Franz Josef Land, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Adjacent minor islands3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] This island was discovered on August 30, 1873, by the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition. It was the first major island of the Franz Josef group on which the expedition members set foot. In 1898-99 a small camp was built at Mys Tegetkhof (Cape Tegethoff, 80°05′N 58°01′E / 80.083°N 58.017°E / 80.083; 58.017) by the Walter Wellman
Walter Wellman
expedition. It contains a marker commemorating the discovery of the archipelago. Cape Tegethoff was named after the main ship of the Austro-Hungarian explorers, which had been named in honor of Austrian admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff.[1][2] Geography[edit] Hall Island is almost completely covered by glaciers
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Nansena Island (Franz Josef Land)
Nansen Island (Russian: о́стров На́нсена; Ostrov Nansena) is an island in Franz Josef Land, Russia. The island is partly glaciated and its area is 164 km2 (63 sq mi). The highest point of the island is 372 m (1,220 ft).[1] Nansen Island is named in the honor and memory of Arctic explorer Fridtjof Nansen, who explored and charted the Franz Josef Archipelago in 1896.Contents1 Geography1.1 Adjacent islands1.1.1 Koetlitz Island 1.1.2 Wilton Island 1.1.3 Bromwich Island 1.1.4 Brice Island 1.1.5 Pritchet Island 1.1.6 Bliss Island 1.1.7 Jefferson Island2 See also 3 References 4 External linksGeography[edit] The island is located in the center of a cluster of islands of similar size separated from each other by narrow sounds
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Greely Island
Greely Island
Greely Island
(Russian: Остров Грили; Ostrov Grili) is an island in Franz Josef Land, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.[1] This island was named after American Arctic
Arctic
explorer Adolphus Greely.Contents1 Geography1.1 Adjacent Islands1.1.1 Brosch Island 1.1.2 Kane Island2 View 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksGeography[edit] Greely Island's area is 127 km2 (49 sq mi) and it is almost completely glacierized.[2] Greely Island
Greely Island
is part of the Zichy Land
Zichy Land
subgroup of the Franz Josef Archipelago
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Champ Island
Champ Island
Champ Island
(Russian: Остров Чамп; Ostrov Champ) is an island in the central area of Franz Josef Land, Russia. Champ Island
Champ Island
has a surface of 374 km2 (144 sq mi) and there is a wide unglacierized zone in the southwest of the island. The highest point of the island is 507 m (1,663 ft). Champ Island
Champ Island
is the southernmost island of the Zichy Land
Zichy Land
subgroup of the Franz Joseph Archipelago. It is separated by narrow sounds from Luigi Island
Luigi Island
in the north and Salisbury Island in the northeast. The broad channel in the west of Champ Island
Champ Island
is known as Markham Channel (Пролив маркама; Proliv Markama), after British polar explorer Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham. This island was named after William S
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Karl-Alexander Island
Karl Alexander Island (Russian: Остров Карла-Александра), also known as Zemlya Karla-Alexandra (Земля Карла Александра), is an island in Franz Josef Land, Russia.Contents1 Geography 2 Adjacent islands 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksGeography[edit] Karl Alexander Island's length is 29 km (18 mi) and its maximum width is 18 km (11.2 mi). Its area is 329 km2 (127 sq mi), but very little of it is ice-free. The highest point on the island is 365 m (1,198 ft). The southern section of the island is covered by an ice dome named Kupol Samoylovicha (Купол Самойловича).[1] This island is part of the Zemlya Zichy subgroup of the Franz Joseph Archipelago
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Zemlya Georga
Zemlya Georga, or Prince George Land (Russian: Земля Георга; Zemlya Georga, "George Land"), is an island in Franz Josef Land, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russian Arctic. Zemlya Georga
Zemlya Georga
was named by Benjamin Leigh Smith
Benjamin Leigh Smith
after Prince George.[1]Contents1 Geography1.1 Glaciers 1.2 Adjacent Islands2 See also 3 References 4 External linksGeography[edit] With a total surface of 2,821 square kilometres (1,089 sq mi), Zemlya Georga
Zemlya Georga
is the largest island of the Franz Josef Archipelago. It is also the longest, with a distance of 115 kilometres (71 mi) between its northernmost and its southernmost ends. The highest point of the island is the summit of Brusilov Ice Dome, the northeastern ice dome, at 416 metres (1,365 ft).[2] The island has a complex coastline, with many bays, deep inlets and capes
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Hooker Island
Hooker Island
Hooker Island
(Russian: остров Гукера; Ostrov Gukera) is one of the central islands of Franz Josef Land. It is located in the central area of the archipelago at 80°14′N 53°01′E / 80.23°N 53.02°E / 80.23; 53.02. It is administered by the Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Adjacent islands2.1.1 Leigh-Smith Island 2.1.2 Royal Society Island 2.1.3 Scott-Keltie Island 2.1.4 Eaton Island 2.1.5 Newton Island 2.1.6 May Island 2.1.7 Etheridge Islands3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Hooker Island
Hooker Island
was named after British naturalist Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker who went with James Clark Ross' expedition on ships Erebus and Terror to Antarctica
Antarctica
in 1839.[1] Remains of a plesiosaur (Peloneustes philarchus) have been found in Hooker Island
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Alexandra Land
Alexandra Land
Alexandra Land
(Russian: Земля Александры, Zemlya Aleksandry) is a large island located in Franz Josef Land, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russian Federation. Not counting detached and far-lying Victoria Island, it is the westernmost island of the Franz Josef Archipelago.Contents1 Geography 2 History and ecology 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksGeography[edit] The highest point of the island, 382 m (1,253 ft), is the summit of Kupol Lunny (Купол Лунный) "Dome of the Moon", a large ice dome covering most of the western part of the island.[1] At the western end of the western glaciated area lies the Nordenskiöld Glacier;[2] other glaciers in the island are the Worcester Glacier (HMS Worcester Glacier)[3] and the Payer Glacier
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Salisbury Island (Russia)
Salisbury Island, (Russian: Остров Солсбери; Ostrov Solsberi) is an island located in the central area of Franz Josef Land, Russia. Salisbury Island is relatively large and long, having a surface of 960 km². Its highest point is 482 m and practically the entire surface of the island is glacierized. Salisbury Island is part of the Zichy Land
Zichy Land
subgroup of the Franz Josef Archipelago. It has very little open sea around it, being wedged between Luigi Island
Luigi Island
and Champ Island
Champ Island
on its southwestern shores, Ziegler Island
Ziegler Island
in the northeast and Wiener Neustadt Island
Wiener Neustadt Island
in the east. This island was named after geology Professor Rollin D. Salisbury (1858-1922), of the University of Chicago
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