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J. M. W. Turner
JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM TURNER, RA (23 April 1775 – 19 December 1851) was an English Romanticist landscape painter . Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting . Although renowned for his oil paintings , Turner is also one of the greatest masters of British watercolour landscape painting. He is commonly known as "the painter of light"
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Royal Academy Summer Exhibition
The SUMMER EXHIBITION is an open art exhibition held annually by the Royal Academy
Royal Academy
in Burlington House
Burlington House
, Piccadilly
Piccadilly
in central London , England
England
, during the summer months of June, July, and August. The exhibition includes paintings , prints, drawings, sculpture , architectural designs and models , and is the largest and most popular open exhibition in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. When the Royal Academy
Royal Academy
was founded in 1768 one of its key objectives was to establish an annual exhibition, open to all artists of merit, which could be visited by the public. The first Summer Exhibition took place in 1769; it has been held every year since without exception. Today, around 1,000 works are selected each year from as many as 10,000 entries representing some 5,000 artists
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Wales
WALES (/ˈweɪlz/ ( listen ); Welsh : Cymru ( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the island of Great Britain . It is bordered by England
England
to the east , the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales
Wales
has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate . Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and Wales
Wales
is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations
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The Needles
THE NEEDLES is a row of three distinctive stacks of chalk that rise about 30m out of the sea off the western extremity of the Isle of Wight , United Kingdom, close to Alum Bay , and part of Totland , the westernmost Civil Parish
Civil Parish
of the Isle of Wight. The Needles
The Needles
Lighthouse stands at the outer, western end of the formation. Built in 1859, it has been automated since 1994. The formation takes its name from a fourth needle-shaped pillar called Lot\'s Wife , that collapsed in a storm in 1764. The remaining rocks are not at all needle-like, but the name has stuck. The Needles
The Needles
were featured on the BBC Two
BBC Two
TV programme Seven Natural Wonders (2005) as one of the wonders of Southern England
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Isle Of Wight
The ISLE OF WIGHT /ˈaɪl əv ˈwaɪt/ (referred to informally as IoW ) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel
English Channel
, about 4 miles (6 km) off the coast of Hampshire , separated by the Solent
Solent
. The island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times , and is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, and verdant landscape of fields, downland and chines . The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House
Osborne House
at East Cowes . It has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats , the hovercraft , and Britain's space rockets
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Joseph Bonomi The Elder
JOSEPH BONOMI THE ELDER ARA (19 January 1739 – 9 March 1808) was an Italian architect and draughtsman who spent most of his career in England where he became a successful designer of country houses. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Family * 3 Architectural style * 4 Works * 5 Literature * 6 Notes * 7 References BIOGRAPHYHe was born GIUSEPPE BONOMI in Rome
Rome
on 19 January 1739. He was educated at the Collegio Romano and then studied architecture with Girolamo Teodoli . He made his early reputation in Rome
Rome
before moving to London
London
in 1767 at the invitation of Robert and James Adam , who employed him as a draughtsman from 1768. In his early years in England Bonomi also worked as an assistant to Thomas Leverton . He became a close friend of the painter Angelica Kauffman
Angelica Kauffman
, whose cousin Rosa Florini he married in 1775
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James Wyatt
JAMES WYATT RA (3 August 1746 – 4 September 1813) was an English architect , a rival of Robert Adam
Robert Adam
in the neoclassical style and neo-Gothic style . CONTENTS * 1 Early classical career * 2 Later classical work * 3 Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
* 4 Death * 5 List of architectural works * 5.1 Public buildings * 5.2 Churches * 5.3 London houses * 5.4 New country houses * 5.5 Garden buildings "> Wyatt's "Pantheon" in Oxford Street, London Externally it was unremarkable (illustration, right), but the classicising domed hall surrounded by galleried aisles and apsidal ends, was something new in assembly rooms, and brought its architect immediate celebrity
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Sunningwell
SUNNINGWELL is a village and civil parish about 3.5 miles (5.6 km) south of Oxford
Oxford
, England
England
. The parish includes the village of Bayworth and the eastern part of Boars Hill . The parish was part of Berkshire
Berkshire
until the 1974 boundary changes transferred it to Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
. Sunningwell
Sunningwell
is notable for the successful campaign run by parishioners against the plans to develop Metropolitan Green Belt
Metropolitan Green Belt
land surrounding the village and elsewhere in Oxfordshire. CONTENTS * 1 Toponym * 2 Manor * 3 Parish church * 4 Amenities * 5 References * 6 Sources and further reading * 7 External links TOPONYMSunningwell's toponym has evolved from Suniggawelle in the 10th century through Soningewell in the 11th century before reaching its current form
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Sketchbook
A SKETCHBOOK is a book or pad with blank pages for sketching and is frequently used by artists for drawing or painting as a part of their creative process. The exhibition of sketchbooks at the Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University in 2006 suggested that there were two broad categories for classifying sketches: * OBSERVATION: this focuses on the documentation of the external world and includes many such travel and nature studies and sketches recording an artist's travels. * INVENTION: this follows the artists' digressions and internal journeys as they develop compositional ideasCONTENTS * 1 Types of sketchbooks * 2 Online sketchbooks * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TYPES OF SKETCHBOOKSSketchbooks come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, with varied covers, and differing numbers of pages. Sketchbooks began as a way to provide a readily available supply of drawing paper in the convenient form of a book
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Covent Garden
COVENT GARDEN (/ˈkɒvənt/ or /ˈkʌvənt/ ) is a district of Westminster
Westminster
, in Greater London, on the eastern fringes of the West End , between Charing Cross Road
Charing Cross Road
and Drury Lane . It is associated with the former fruit-and-vegetable market in the central square, now a popular shopping and tourist site, and with the Royal Opera House
Royal Opera House
, which is also known as "Covent Garden". The district is divided by the main thoroughfare of Long Acre , north of which is given over to independent shops centred on Neal\'s Yard and Seven Dials , while the south contains the central square with its street performers and most of the historical buildings, theatres and entertainment facilities, including the London Transport Museum and the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
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Claude Joseph Vernet
CLAUDE-JOSEPH VERNET (14 August 1714 – 3 December 1789) was a French painter . His son, Antoine Charles Horace Vernet , was also a painter. CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 Gallery * 3 Literary references * 4 References * 5 External links LIFE AND WORK Bust of Claude-Joseph Vernet, 1783 CE. From Paris, France. By Louis-Simon Boizot. The Victoria and Albert Museum, London Vernet was born in Avignon
Avignon
. When only fourteen years of age he aided his father, Antoine Vernet (1689–1753), a skilled decorative painter, in the most important parts of his work. The panels of sedan chairs, however, could not satisfy his ambition, and Vernet started for Rome
Rome

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Peter Monamy
PETER MONAMY was an English marine painter who lived between 1681 and 1749. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and family * 2 Missing years * 3 Later life * 4 Posthumous reputation * 5 References * 5.1 Printed materials * 5.2 Other sources * 6 Notes * 7 External links EARLY LIFE AND FAMILY Peter Monamy
Peter Monamy
was baptised at the church of St Botolph’s-without-Aldgate , London
London
, England
England
, on 12 January 1681 (new style)
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Snow Storm
A WINTER STORM is an event in which varieties of precipitation are formed that only occur at low temperatures , such as snow or sleet , or a rainstorm where ground temperatures are low enough to allow ice to form (i.e. freezing rain ). In temperate continental climates , these storms are not necessarily restricted to the winter season, but may occur in the late autumn and early spring as well. Very rarely, they may form in summer, though it would have to be an abnormally cold summer, such as the summer of 1816 in the Northeast United States
United States
of America
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Snuff (tobacco)
SNUFF is a smokeless tobacco made from ground or pulverised tobacco leaves. It is inhaled or "snuffed" into the nasal cavity, delivering a swift hit of nicotine and a lasting flavoured scent (especially if flavouring has been blended with the tobacco). Traditionally it is sniffed or inhaled lightly after a pinch of snuff is either placed onto the back surface of the hand , held pinched between thumb and index finger, or held by a specially made "snuffing" device. It originated in the Americas and was in common use in Europe by the 17th century. Traditional snuff production consists of a lengthy, multi-step process, in tobacco snuff mills. The selected tobacco leaves are first subject to special tobacco curing or fermentation processes, where they will later provide the individual characteristics and flavour for each type of snuff blend. Snuff is usually scented or flavoured, with many blends of snuff requiring months to years of special storage to reach the required maturity
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Snuff Box
A DECORATIVE BOX is a form of packaging that is generally more than just functional, but also intended to be decorative and artistic. Many such boxes are used for promotional packaging , both commercially and privately. Historical objects are usually called caskets if larger than a few inches in more than one dimension, with only smaller ones called boxes. CONTENTS * 1 Gift box * 2 Work box * 3 Snuff box * 4 Strong box * 5 Knife box * 6 Bible
Bible
box * 7 Étui
Étui
* 8 Wooden wine box * 9 See also * 10 References GIFT BOXTraditionally gift boxes used for promotional and seasonal gifts are made from sturdy paperboard or corrugated fiberboard . These boxes normally consist of a base and detachable lid and are made by using a die cutting process to cut the board. The box is then covered with decorative paper
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Agate
AGATE /ˈæɡət/ is a cryptocrystalline variety of silica , chiefly chalcedony , characterised by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock, they are classically associated with volcanic rocks and can be common in certain metamorphic rocks . CONTENTS* 1 Etymology and history * 1.1 Ancient use * 2 Formation and characteristics * 3 Types of agate * 4 Uses in industry and art * 5 Health impact * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links ETYMOLOGY AND HISTORYThe stone was given its name by Theophrastus
Theophrastus
, a Greek philosopher and naturalist , who discovered the stone along the shore line of the river Achates (Greek : Ἀχάτης) in present-day Sicily
Sicily
, sometime between the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE
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