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Iximche
IXIMCHE (/iʃimˈtʃe/) (or IXIMCHé using Spanish orthography) is a Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
Mesoamerican archaeological site in the western highlands of Guatemala
Guatemala
. Iximche
Iximche
was the capital of the Late Postclassic Kaqchikel Maya kingdom from 1470 until its abandonment in 1524. The architecture of the site included a number of pyramid-temples , palaces and two Mesoamerican ballcourts . Excavators uncovered the poorly preserved remains of painted murals on some of the buildings and ample evidence of human sacrifice . The ruins of Iximche
Iximche
were declared a Guatemalan National Monument in the 1960s. The site has a small museum displaying a number of pieces found there, including sculptures and ceramics. It is open daily. For many years the Kaqchikel served as loyal allies of the K\'iche\' Maya
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Madre Vieja River
The RíO MADRE VIEJA (Spanish pronunciation: ) is a river in southwest Guatemala. Its sources are located in the Sierra Madre range, on the border of the departments El Quiché
El Quiché
, Sololá , and Chimaltenango . It flows southwards through the coastal lowlands of Suchitepéquez and Escuintla to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. The Madre Vieja river basin covers a territory of 1,007 square kilometres (389 sq mi). REFERENCES * ^ INSIVUMEH. "Mapa de Cuencas y Ríos". * ^ INSIVUMEH. "Principales ríos de Guatemala". This article related to a river in Guatemala
Guatemala
is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Central American Pine-oak Forests
The CENTRAL AMERICAN PINE-OAK FORESTS ecoregion , in the tropical and subtropical coniferous forests biome , is found in Central America
Central America
and Chiapas
Chiapas
state of southern Mexico
Mexico
. CONTENTS * 1 Setting * 2 Flora * 3 See also * 4 References SETTINGThe Central American pine-oak forests
Central American pine-oak forests
occupy an area of 111,400 square kilometres (43,000 sq mi), extending along the mountainous spine of Central America, extending from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in Mexico's Chiapas
Chiapas
state through the highlands of Guatemala
Guatemala
, El Salvador , and Honduras
Honduras
to central Nicaragua
Nicaragua

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Clan
A CLAN is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent . Even if lineage details are unknown, clan members may be organized around a founding member or apical ancestor . The kinship-based bonds may be symbolic, whereby the clan shares a "stipulated" common ancestor that is a symbol of the clan's unity. When this "ancestor" is non-human, it is referred to as a totem , which is frequently an animal. The word clan is derived from the Gaelic clann meaning children or progeny but not from the word for family in the Irish language
Irish language
and the Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
languages. According to the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
, the word was introduced into English in around 1425, as a label for the nature of the society of the Scottish Highlands ll
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Tz'utujil People
The TZ\'UTUJIL (TZUTUJIL, TZUTUHIL, SUTUJIL) are a Native American people, one of the 21 Maya ethnic groups that dwell in Guatemala
Guatemala
. Together with the Xinca , Garífunas ( Black Caribs ) and the Ladinos, they make up the 24 ethnic groups in this relatively small country. Approximately 100,000 Tz'utujil live in the area around Lake Atitlán . Their pre-Columbian capital, near Santiago Atitlán
Santiago Atitlán
, was Chuitinamit . In pre-Columbian times, the Tz'utujil nation was a part of the ancient Maya civilization
Maya civilization
. The Tz'utujil are noted for their continuing adherence to traditional cultural and religious practices. Evangelical Protestantism and Roman Catholicism are also practiced among them. They speak the Tz\'utujil language , a member of the Mayan language family
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Departments Of Guatemala
Guatemala is divided into 22 departments (Spanish : departamentos) which are in turn divided into 334 municipalities . In addition, Guatemala has in the past claimed that all or part of the nation of Belize is a department of Guatemala (as a part of the Province of Verapaz), and this claim is sometimes reflected in maps of the region. Guatemala formally recognized Belize in 1991, but as of this time the remaining border disputes between the two nations had not been resolved
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Guatemalan Highlands
The GUATEMALAN HIGHLANDS is an upland region in southern Guatemala
Guatemala
, lying between the Sierra Madre de Chiapas to the south and the Petén lowlands to the north. The highlands are made up of a series of high valleys enclosed by mountains. The local name for the region is Altos, meaning "highlands", which includes the northern declivity of the Sierra Madre. The mean elevation is greatest in the west (Altos of Quezaltenango
Quezaltenango
) and least in the east (Altos of Guatemala). A few of the streams of the Pacific slope actually rise in the highlands, and force a way through the Sierra Madre at the bottom of deep ravines. One large river, the Chixoy or Salinas River , escapes northwards towards the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico

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George W. Bush
43RD PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES * Presidency * Timeline -------------------------POLICIES * Domestic * Economic * Foreign * Bush Doctrine * International trips * Legislation font-size:115%;text-align:center;"> * v * t * e GEORGE WALKER BUSH (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He was also the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born on July 6, 1946 in New Haven, Connecticut . After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives shortly thereafter
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Guatemala City
GUATEMALA CITY (Spanish : Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as GUATEMALA or GUATE, is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Guatemala , and the most populous in Central America . The city is located in the south-central part of the country, nestled in a mountain valley called Valle de la Ermita (English: Hermitage Valley). In 2012, it had a population of 2,110,100. Guatemala City is also the capital of the local Municipality of Guatemala and of the Guatemala Department
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Maya Peoples
The MAYA PEOPLE (sometimes MAYANS) are a group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. They inhabit southern Mexico
Mexico
, Guatemala
Guatemala
, Belize
Belize
, El Salvador
El Salvador
and Honduras
Honduras
. The overarching term "Maya" is a collective designation to include the peoples of the region that share some degree of cultural and linguistic heritage; however, the term embraces many distinct populations, societies, and ethnic groups that each have their own particular traditions, cultures, and historical identity. The pre-Columbian Maya population was approximately eight million. There were an estimated seven million Maya living in this area at the start of the 21st century
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Maya Society
MAYA SOCIETY concerns the social organization of the Pre-Hispanic Mayas, its political structures and social classes
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Sacrifice In Maya Culture
SACRIFICE was a religious activity in Maya culture , involving either the killing of animals or the bloodletting by members of the community, in rituals superintended by priests . Sacrifice
Sacrifice
has been a feature of almost all pre-modern societies at some stage of their development and for broadly the same reason: to propitiate or fulfill a perceived obligation towards the gods . CONTENTS * 1 Crisis and sacrifice * 2 Sacrifices in calendar and everyday rituals * 3 Origins, meaning and social function * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CRISIS AND SACRIFICEWhat is known of Mayan ritual practices comes from two sources: the extant chronicles and codices of the missionary-ethnographers who arrived with or shortly after the Spanish conquest and subsequent archaeological data
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Maya Architecture
A unique and intricate style, the tradition of MAYA ARCHITECTURE spans several thousands of years. Often, the buildings most dramatic and easily recognizable as Mayans are the stepped pyramids the Terminal Pre-classic period and beyond. Being based on the general Mesoamerican architectural traditions, these pyramids relied on intricate carved stone in order to create a stairstep design. Each pyramid was dedicated to a deity whose shrine sat at its peak. During this "height" of Maya culture, the centers of their religious, commercial and bureaucratic power grew into large cities, namely Tikal , and Uxmal
Uxmal
. Through observation of the numerous consistent elements and stylistic distinctions, remnants of Maya architecture
Maya architecture
have become an important key to understanding the evolution of their ancient temples
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Maya Astronomy
MAYA ASTRONOMY is the study of the moon, planets, milky way, sun, and other astronomical occurrences by the Precolumbian Maya Civilization of Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. The Classic Maya in particular saw the Maya develop some of the most accurate pre-telescope astronomy in the world, aided by their fully developed writing system and their positional numeral system , both of which are fully indigenous to Mesoamerica. The Classic Maya understood many astronomical phenomena: For example, their estimate of the length of the synodic month being more accurate than Ptolemy's, and their calculation as to the length of the tropical solar year was more accurate than that of the Spanish when the latter first arrived. NOTES * ^ Milbrath 1999, pp. 252-253. * ^ "Mayan Astronomy". University of Arizona. Retrieved 11 December 2014. * ^ Leon-Portilla, Miguel (1 September 1990). Time and Reality in the Thought of the Maya. University of Oklahoma Press
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Maya Mythology
MAYA MYTHOLOGY is part of Mesoamerican mythology and comprises all of the Maya tales in which personified forces of nature, deities, and the heroes interacting with these play the main roles. Other parts of Maya oral tradition (such as animal tales and many moralising stories) do not properly belong to the domain of mythology, but rather to legend and folk tale. CONTENTS * 1 Sources * 2 Important mythical themes * 2.1 Creation and end of the world * 2.2 The Corn Men * 2.3 Actions of the heroes: Arranging the world * 2.4 Marriage with the Earth * 2.5 Origin of Sun and Moon * 3 Reconstructing pre-Spanish mythology * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Bibliography and references * 7 External links SOURCESThe oldest written myths date from the 16th century and are found in historical sources from the Guatemalan Highlands
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Maya Religion
The traditional MAYA RELIGION of Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and the Tabasco, Chiapas, and Yucatán regions of Mexico is a southeastern variant of Mesoamerican religion. As is the case with many other contemporary Mesoamerican religions, it results from centuries of symbiosis with Roman Catholicism . When its pre-Spanish antecedents are taken into account, however, traditional Maya religion already exists for more than two millennia as a recognizably distinct phenomenon. Before the advent of Christianity, it was spread over many indigenous kingdoms, with all their own local traditions. Today, it coexists and interacts with pan-Mayan syncretism, the 're-invention of tradition' by the Pan-Maya movement , and Christianity in its various denominations
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