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Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Russian: Ива́н Петро́вич Па́влов, IPA: [ɪˈvan pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈpavləf] ( listen); 26 September [O.S. 14 September] 1849 – 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning. From his childhood days Pavlov demonstrated intellectual curiosity along with an unusual energy which he referred to as "the instinct for research".[4] Inspired by the progressive ideas which D. I. Pisarev, the most eminent of the Russian literary critics of the 1860s, and I. M. Sechenov, the father of Russian physiology, were spreading, Pavlov abandoned his religious career and devoted his life to science
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H. G. Wells
Herbert George Wells[3][4] (21 September 1866 – 13 August 1946), usually referred to as H. G. Wells, was an English writer. He was prolific in many genres, writing dozens of novels, short stories, and works of social commentary, satire, biography, and autobiography, including even two books on war games. He is now best remembered for his science fiction novels and is often called a "father of science fiction", along with Jules Verne
Jules Verne
and Hugo Gernsback.[5][6][a] During his own lifetime, however, he was most prominent as a forward-looking, even prophetic social critic who devoted his literary talents to the development of a progressive vision on a global scale. A futurist, he wrote a number of utopian works and foresaw the advent of airplanes, tanks, space travel, nuclear weapons, satellite television and something resembling the World Wide Web.[7] His science fiction imagined time travel, alien invasion, invisibility, and biological engineering
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Priest
A priest or priestess (feminine) (/priːst/ from Greek πρεσβύτερος presbýteros through Latin
Latin
presbyter, "elder", or from Old High German
Old High German
priast, prest, from Vulgar Latin
Latin
"provost" "one put over others", from Latin
Latin
praepositus "person placed in charge"), is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities
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Bicycle
A bicycle, also called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called a cyclist, or bicyclist. Bicycles were introduced in the late 19th century in Europe, and by the early 21st century, more than 1 billion have been produced worldwide.[1][2][3] These numbers far exceed the number of cars, both in total and ranked by the number of individual models produced.[4][5][6] They are the principal means of transportation in many regions
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Sergey Botkin
Sergey Petrovich Botkin (Russian: Серге́й Петро́вич Бо́ткин; 5 September 1832 – 12 December 1889) was a famous Russian clinician, therapist, and activist, one of the founders of modern Russian medical science and education. He introduced triage, pathological anatomy, and post mortem diagnostics into Russian medical practice. Botkin was born on 5 September 1832, in Moscow
Moscow
to the family of famous Russian tea tradesmen. First steps towards education the boy made in the private school of Ennes. In 1850 Botkin was admitted to Moscow State University. In 1855 Sergey Botkin
Sergey Botkin
graduated from the university with honors and received a Doctor of Medicine
Medicine
degree. Shortly afterwards however he was mobilized as a conscript, designated to serve as military surgeon and sent straight to Sevastopol, where the Crimean War
Crimean War
was in full swing
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Leipzig
Leipzig
Leipzig
(/ˈlaɪpsɪɡ/; German: [ˈlaɪptsɪç]) is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 582,277 inhabitants[3] (1.1 million[4] residents in the larger urban zone)[1] it is Germany's tenth most populous city.[5][6] Leipzig
Leipzig
is located about 160 kilometres (99 mi) southwest of Berlin
Berlin
at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleisse, and Parthe
Parthe
rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig
Leipzig
has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire.[7] The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes
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Carl Ludwig
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig (German: [ˈluːtvɪç]; 29 December 1816 – 23 April 1895) was a German physician and physiologist. In 1842 Ludwig became a professor of physiology and in 1846 of comparative anatomy. From professorships in Zurich
Zurich
and Vienna
Vienna
he went in 1865 to the University of Leipzig
Leipzig
and developed there the Physiological Institute, designated today after him: Carl Ludwig Institute of Physiology.[1] Ludwig researched several topics such as the physiology of blood pressure, urinary excretion, and anesthesia. He received the Copley Medal in 1884 for his research. In 1869, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
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Breslau
Wrocław
Wrocław
(/ˈvrɔːtslɑːf/;[2] Polish: [ˈvrɔt͡swaf] ( listen); German: Breslau, pronounced [ˈbʁɛslaʊ̯]; Czech: Vratislav; Latin: Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland. It lies on the banks of the River Oder
Oder
in the Silesian Lowlands
Silesian Lowlands
of Central Europe, roughly 350 kilometres (220 mi) from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to the north and 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the Sudeten Mountains to the south. The population of Wrocław
Wrocław
in 2017 was 638,364, making it the fourth-largest city in Poland
Poland
and the main city of Wrocław agglomeration. Wrocław
Wrocław
is the historical capital of Silesia
Silesia
and Lower Silesia. Today, it is the capital of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship
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Old Style And New Style Dates
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day
Lady Day
(25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar.[2][3][4] Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Joseph Wolpe
Joseph Wolpe (20 April 1915 in Johannesburg, South Africa
Johannesburg, South Africa
– 4 December 1997 in Los Angeles) was a South African psychiatrist and one of the most influential figures in behavior therapy. Wolpe grew up in South Africa, attending Parktown Boys' High School and obtaining his MD from the University of the Witwatersrand. In 1956 Wolpe was awarded a Ford Fellowship and spent a year at Stanford University
Stanford University
in the Center for Behavioral Sciences, subsequently returning to South Africa but permanently moving to the United States in 1960 when he accepted a position at the University of Virginia. In 1965 Wolpe accepted a position at Temple University.[1][2] One of the most influential experiences in Wolpe's life was when he enlisted in the South African army as a medical officer
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Karl Vogt
Karl
Karl
(also Carl) is a variant of the given name Charles
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Leon Orbeli
Leon Abgarovich Orbeli (Armenian: Լևոն Աբգարի Օրբելի, Levon Abgari Orbeli; Russian: Леон Абгарович Орбели, Levon Abgarovich Orbeli; June 25, 1882 – December 9, 1958) was an Armenian physiologist active in the Russian SFSR. He was a member of the Academies of Science of USSR
USSR
and Armenian SSR
Armenian SSR
(the latter was founded by his brother Joseph Orbeli). Leon Orbeli
Leon Orbeli
became director of the Institute of Physiology in 1950. Orbeli played an important part in the development of evolutionary physiology and wrote more than 200 works on experimental and theoretical science, 130 of them journal articles. Alexandr Gyietsinski, with whom he shares eponymic fame, was one of his students. Career[edit] Levon (or Leon) Orbeli was born in Tsaghkadzor, Armenia
Armenia
(then Darachichag, Erivan Governorate, Russian Empire)
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Boris Babkin
Boris Petrovitch Babkin FRS,[1] M.D., D.Sc, LL.D (Russian: Бори́с Петро́вич Ба́бкин; 17 January 1877 – 3 May 1950) was a Russian-born physiologist, who worked in Russia, England and Canada.[2][3][4][5] Career[edit] Babkin graduated from the Military Medical Academy, St. Petersburg, with a Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine
degree in 1904.[2] He held professorships at the Novo-Alexandria Agricultural Institute and the University of Odessa,[3] before being imprisoned and exiled from Russia in 1922, due to his criticism of the October Revolution.[4] He then spent two years in England, working at University College London under Ernest Starling,[4] before joining Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, as Professor of Physiology.[3] In 1928 Babkin became a research professor at McGill University, Montreal, where he spent the remainder of his career
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University Of Warsaw
The University
University
of Warsaw
Warsaw
(Polish: Uniwersytet Warszawski, Latin: Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest[6] university in Poland. It employs over 6,000 staff including over 3,100 academic educators. It provides graduate courses for 53,000 students (on top of over 9,200 postgraduate and doctoral candidates). The University
University
offers some 37 different fields of study, 18 faculties and over 100 specializations in Humanities, technical as well as Natural Sciences.[6] It was founded as a Royal University
University
on 19 November 1816, when the Partitions of Poland
Poland
separated Warsaw
Warsaw
from the oldest and most influential University
University
of Kraków
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