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Italianate-style
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. In the Italianate style, the models and architectural vocabulary of 16th-century Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture, which had served as inspiration for both Palladianism
Palladianism
and Neoclassicism, were synthesised with picturesque aesthetics. The style of architecture that was thus created, though also characterised as "Neo-Renaissance", was essentially of its own time. "The backward look transforms its object," Siegfried Giedion wrote of historicist architectural styles;[2] "every spectator at every period—at every moment, indeed—inevitably transforms the past according to his own nature." The Italianate style was first developed in Britain about 1802 by John Nash, with the construction of Cronkhill
Cronkhill
in Shropshire
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Osborne House
Osborne House
Osborne House
is a former royal residence in East Cowes, Isle of Wight, United Kingdom. The house was built between 1845 and 1851 for Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
and Prince Albert as a summer home and rural retreat. Prince Albert designed the house himself in the style of an Italian Renaissance palazzo. The builder was Thomas Cubitt, the London architect and builder whose company built the main façade of Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
for the royal couple in 1847. An earlier smaller house on the site was demolished to make way for a new and far larger house, though the original entrance portico survives as the main gateway to the walled garden. Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
died at Osborne House
Osborne House
in January 1901
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Palladio
Andrea Palladio
Andrea Palladio
(Italian pronunciation: [anˈdrɛːa palˈlaːdjo]; 30 November 1508 – 19 August 1580) was an Italian[1] architect active in the Republic of Venice. Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily by Vitruvius, is widely considered to be one of the most influential individuals in the history of architecture
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Cupola
In architecture, a cupola /ˈkjuːpələ/ is a relatively small, most often dome-like, tall structure on top of a building.[1] Often used to provide a lookout or to admit light and air, it usually crowns a larger roof or dome.[2][3] The word derives, via Italian, from the lower Latin cupula (classical Latin cupella from the Greek κύπελλον kupellon) "small cup" (Latin cupa) indicating a vault resembling an upside down cup.[4] The cupola is a development during the Renaissance of the oculus, an ancient device found in Roman architecture, but being weatherproof was superior for the wetter climates of northern Europe.[citation needed] The chhatri, seen in Indian architecture, fits the definition of a cupola when it is used atop a larger structure.[citation needed] Cupolas often appear as small buildings in their own right. They often serve as a belfry, belvedere, or roof lantern above a main roof
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Quoin (architecture)
Quoins (/kɔɪn/ or /kwɔɪn/) are masonry blocks at the corner of a wall.[1] They exist in some cases to provide actual strength for a wall made with inferior stone or rubble[2] and in other cases to make a feature of a corner,[3] creating an impression of permanence and strength, and reinforcing the onlooker’s sense of a structure’s presence.[4] Stone quoins are used on stone or brick buildings. Brick
Brick
quoins may appear on brick buildings that extrude from the facing brickwork in such a way as to give the appearance of uniformly cut blocks of stone larger than the bricks
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Loggia
A loggia ( /ˈlɒdʒiə/ or /ˈloʊdʒə/; Italian: [ˈlɔddʒa]) is an architectural feature which is a covered exterior gallery or corridor usually on an upper level, or sometimes ground level. The outer wall is open to the elements, usually supported by a series of columns or arches. Loggias can be located either on the front or side of a building and are not meant for entrance but as an out-of-door sitting room.[1][2][3] From the early Middle Ages, nearly every Italian comune had an open arched loggia in its main square which served as a "symbol of communal justice and government and as a stage for civic ceremony".[4]Contents1 Definition of the Roman loggia1.1 Examples2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksDefinition of the Roman loggia[edit] The main difference between a loggia and a portico is the role within the functional layout of the building
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Wrought-iron
Wrought iron
Wrought iron
is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%). It is a semi-fused mass of iron with fibrous slag inclusions (up to 2% by weight), which gives it a "grain" resembling wood that is visible when it is etched or bent to the point of failure. Wrought iron
Wrought iron
is tough, malleable, ductile, corrosion-resistant and easily welded. Before the development of effective methods of steelmaking and the availability of large quantities of steel, wrought iron was the most common form of malleable iron. It was given the name wrought because it was hammered, rolled or otherwise worked while hot enough to expel molten slag. The modern functional equivalent of wrought iron is mild or low carbon steel
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Balustrade
A baluster—also called spindle or stair stick[citation needed]—is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, cut from a rectangular or square plank, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood and sometimes of metal,[1] standing on a unifying footing, and supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase.[2] Multiplied in this way, they form a balustrade.[3] Individually, a baluster shaft may describe the turned form taken by a brass or silver candlestick, an upright furniture support, or the stem of a brass chandelier, etc.A balustradeSwelling form of the half-open flower of Punica granatum, in Italian balaustraContents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Profiles and style changes 4 Modern materials used 5 Banisters 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksEtymology[edit] According to OED, "baluster" is derived through the French: balustre, from Italian: balaustro, from balaustra, "pomegranate flower" [from
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Government House, Melbourne
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.[1] In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy. Typically the philosophy chosen is some balance between the principle of individual freedom and the idea of absolute state authority (tyranny). While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiary organizations.[2] Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy and tyranny
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Charles Eastlake
Charles Locke Eastlake (11 March 1836 – 20 November 1906) was a British architect and furniture designer. Eastlake was born in Plymouth. Trained by the architect Philip Hardwick (1792–1870), he popularized William Morris's notions of decorative arts in the Arts and Crafts style, becoming one of the principal exponents of the revived Early English or Modern Gothic style popular during the nineteenth century. He did not make any furniture; his designs were produced by professional cabinet makers. The style of furniture named after him, Eastlake style, flourished during the later half of the nineteenth century
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Cliveden
Cliveden
Cliveden
(pronounced /ˈklɪvdən/) is a National Trust-owned estate in Buckinghamshire, on the border with Berkshire. The Italianate mansion, known as Cliveden
Cliveden
House, crowns an outlying ridge of the Chiltern Hills
Chiltern Hills
close to the hilltop village of Taplow, just 2 miles (3.2 km) from the riverside town of Maidenhead. The mansion sits on banks 40 metres (130 ft) above the River Thames, and its grounds slope down to the river. Cliveden
Cliveden
has been home to an earl, three countesses, two dukes, a Prince of Wales and the Viscounts Astor
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Mansion
A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French
Old French
from the Latin
Latin
word mansio "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb manere "to dwell". The English word "manse" originally defined a property large enough for the parish priest to maintain himself, but a mansion is no longer self-sustaining in this way (compare a Roman or medieval villa). 'Manor' comes from the same root—territorial holdings granted to a lord who would remain there—hence it is easy to see how the word 'Mansion' came to have its meaning.Contents1 History 2 19th century development 3 Latin
Latin
America 4 Modern mansions 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Within an ancient Roman city, aristocratic or just wealthy dwellings might be very extensive, and luxurious
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Villa Emo
Villa
Villa
Emo is a patrician villa in the Veneto, northern Italy, near the village of Fanzolo di Vedelago. It was designed by Andrea Palladio
Andrea Palladio
in 1559 for the Emo family of Venice
Venice
and remained in the hands of the Emo family until it was sold in 2004. Since 1996, it has been conserved as part of the World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
"City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto".Contents1 History 2 Architecture 3 Frescoes 4 Media 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksHistory[edit] The building of Villa
Villa
Emo was the culmination of a long-lasting project of the patrician Emo family of the Republic of Venice
Venice
to develop its estates at Fanzolo
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Sandridge Park
Sandridge Park, near Stoke Gabriel, Devon, is an English country house in the Italianate style, designed by John Nash around 1805[1] for the Dowager Lady Ashburton, née Elizabeth Baring, the wife of John Dunning, 1st Baron Ashburton. It is a Grade II* listed building.[2] It is considered to be a late intimation of Nash's development of the Italianate style. Commissioned by the dowager Lady Ashburton as a country retreat, this small country house clearly shows the transition between the picturesque of William Gilpin and Nash's yet to be fully evolved Italianism
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Piano Nobile
The piano nobile (Italian, "noble floor" or "noble level", also sometimes referred to by the corresponding French term, bel étage) is the principal floor of a large house, usually built in one of the styles of Classical Renaissance architecture. This floor contains the principal reception and bedrooms of the house. The piano nobile is often the first (European terminology, second floor in US terms) or sometimes the second storey, located above a ground floor (often rusticated) containing minor rooms and service rooms. The reasons for this were so the rooms would have finer views, and more practically to avoid the dampness and odours of the street level. This is especially true in Venice
Venice
where the piano nobile of the many palazzi is especially obvious from the exterior by virtue of its larger windows and balconies and open loggias
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Stoke Gabriel
Stoke Gabriel is a village and parish in Devon, England, situated on a creek of the River Dart. The village is a popular tourist destination in the South Hams and is famous for its mill pond and crab fishing (known colloquially as crabbing). It is equidistant from Paignton, Dartmouth and Totnes, and has a population of approximately 1,200, reducing slightly to 1,107 at the 2011 census.[1] The village is the major part of the electoral ward of East Dart. The ward population at the abovementioned census was 1,877.[2] Fisherman probably first came to Stoke Gabriel to fish salmon and gain access to the River Dart. The village has an approximately 1,000-year-old yew tree in the churchyard of The Church of St Mary and St Gabriel, a church which has stood since Norman times
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