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Italian Neorealism
Italian neorealism
Italian neorealism
(Italian: Neorealismo), also known as the Golden Age, is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location, frequently using non-professional actors. Italian neorealism
Italian neorealism
films mostly contend with the difficult economic and moral conditions of post-World War II Italy, representing changes in the Italian psyche and conditions of everyday life, including poverty, oppression, injustice, and desperation.Contents1 History 2 Characteristics 3 Impact 4 Significant works4.1 Precursors and influences 4.2 Main works5 Major figures 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksHistory[edit] Italian neorealism
Italian neorealism
came about as World War II
World War II
ended and Benito Mussolini's government fell, causing the Italian film industry to lose its centre
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Senso (film)
Senso is a 1954 Italian historical melodrama film, an adaptation of Camillo Boito's Italian novella Senso by the Italian director Luchino Visconti, with Alida Valli
Alida Valli
as Livia Serpieri and Farley Granger
Farley Granger
as Lieutenant Franz Mahler. Originally, Visconti had hoped to cast Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
and Marlon Brando in the lead roles. However, Bergman was then married to Italian director Roberto Rossellini, who would not allow her to work for other directors, and Brando was nixed by the producers, who considered Granger a bigger star at the time. It is also said that Brando refused the role after being informed that Bergman was not going to participate in the film
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Toni (1935 Film)
Toni is a 1935 French drama film directed by Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
and starring Charles Blavette, Celia Montalván and Édouard Delmont. It is an early example of the casting of non-professional actors and on-location shooting - both of which would influence the Left Bank of the French New Wave movement. Examining the romantic interactions between a group of immigrants (both from abroad and other parts of France) working around a quarry and a farm in Provence, it is also generally considered a major precursor to the Italian neorealist movement. Luchino Visconti, one of the founding members of the later film movement, was assistant director on the film
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Cinecittà
Cinecittà
Cinecittà
(pronounced [ˌtʃinetʃitˈta]; Italian for Cinema City) is a large film studio in Rome, Italy. With an area of 400,000 square metres, it is the largest film studio in Europe, and is considered the hub of Italian cinema. The studios were constructed during the Fascist era
Fascist era
as part of a scheme to revive the Italian film industry.[1] World-renowned filmmakers such as Federico Fellini, Roberto Rossellini, Luchino Visconti, Sergio Leone, Bernardo Bertolucci, Francis Ford Coppola, Martin Scorsese, and Mel Gibson
Mel Gibson
have worked at Cinecittà
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Gianni Puccini
Gianni Puccini (9 November 1914 – 3 December 1968) was an Italian screenwriter and film director. He wrote for 32 films between 1940 and 1967
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Editor-in-chief
An editor-in-chief, also known as lead editor, chief editor, managing or executive editor, is a publication's editorial leader who has final responsibility for its operations and policies.[1][2]Contents1 Description 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksDescription[edit] The editor-in-chief heads all departments of the organization and is held accountable for delegating tasks to staff members and managing them. The term is often used at newspapers, magazines, yearbooks, and television news programs. The editor-in-chief is commonly the link between the publisher or proprietor and the editorial stafplied to academic journals, where the editor-in-chief gives the ultimate decision whether a submitted manuscript will be published
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Magazine
A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine). Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content. They are generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a collection or storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles
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Vittorio Mussolini
Vittorio Mussolini
Mussolini
(27 September 1916 – 12 June 1997) was an Italian film critic and producer. He was also the second son of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. However, he was the first officially acknowledged son of Mussolini, with his second wife Rachele; his older half-brother was never officially acknowledged by Mussolini's fascist regime.Contents1 Biography 2 Publications 3 Filmography 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Vittorio Mussolini
Mussolini
was born in Milan, Lombardy, Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia). He married Milanese Orsola Buvoli (1914–2009), two years his senior. In January 1938, Mussolini
Mussolini
and his wife announced the birth of their first child, a son
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Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(French: [ʁənwaʁ]; 15 September 1894 – 12 February 1979) was a French film director, screenwriter, actor, producer and author. As a film director and actor, he made more than forty films from the silent era to the end of the 1960s. His films La Grande Illusion (1937) and The Rules of the Game
The Rules of the Game
(1939) are often cited by critics as among the greatest films ever made. He was ranked by the BFI's Sight & Sound poll of critics in 2002 as the fourth greatest director of all time. Among numerous honors accrued during his lifetime, he received a Lifetime Achievement Academy Award in 1975 for his contribution to the motion picture industry. Renoir was the son of the painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir
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Alessandro Blasetti
Alessandro
Alessandro
is both a given name and a surname, the Italian form of the name Alexander
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Liberalism
Liberalism
Liberalism
is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.[1][2][3] Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas and programmes such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free markets, civil rights, democratic societies, secular governments, gender equality and international cooperation.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Liberalism
Liberalism
first became a distinct political movement during the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among philosophers and economists in the Western world. Liberalism
Liberalism
rejected the prevailing social and political norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy and the divine right of kings
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Benito Mussolini
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini
Mussolini
(/bəˈniːtoʊ mʊsəˈliːni, muːsə-/; Italian: [beˈnito mussoˈlini];[1] 29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
(Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF)
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Socialist
Socialism
Socialism
is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production[10] as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.[11] Social ownership
Social ownership
may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity.[12] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them,[13] though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms.[5][14][15] Socialist
Socialist
economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms.[16] Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money, with engineering and technical criteria, based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism
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Italian Economic Miracle
The Italian economic miracle
Italian economic miracle
or the Italian economic boom (Italian: il miracolo economico, or boom economico) is the term used by historians, economists and the mass media[1] to designate the prolonged period of strong economic growth in Italy
Italy
after the Second World War from the 1950s to the late 1960s, and in particular the years from 1950 to 1963.[2] This phase of Italian history represented not only a cornerstone in the economic and social development of the country—which was transformed from a poor, mainly rural, nation into a global industrial power—but also a period of momentous change in Italian society and culture.[3] As summed up by one historian, by the end of the 1970s, "social security coverage had been made comprehensive and relatively generous
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Giulio Andreotti
Giulio Andreotti
Giulio Andreotti
OMI SMOM OCSG OESSH (Italian: [ˈʤuːljo andreˈɔtti]; 14 January 1919 – 6 May 2013)[2] was an Italian politician and statesman who served as the 41st Prime Minister of Italy
Italy
and leader of the Christian Democracy party; he was the sixth longest-serving Prime Minister since the Italian Unification
Italian Unification
and the second longest-serving post-war Prime Minister, after Silvio Berlusconi. Andreotti is widely considered the most powerful and prominent politician of the so-called First Republic. Beginning as a protégé of Alcide De Gasperi, Andreotti achieved cabinet rank at a young age and occupied all the major offices of state over the course of a forty-year political career, being seen as a reassuring figure by the civil service, business community, and Vatican
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Alcide De Gasperi
Alcide Amedeo Francesco De Gasperi (Italian pronunciation: [alˈtʃiːde de ˈɡasperi]; 3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman who founded the Christian Democracy party.[1] From 1945 to 1953 he was the Prime Minister of Italy, leading eight successive coalition governments. De Gasperi was the last Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy, serving under both King Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
and King Umberto II. His eight-year term in office remains a landmark of political longevity for a leader in modern Italian politics
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