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Istrian Exodus
The term Istrian-Dalmatian exodus
Istrian-Dalmatian exodus
refers to the post-World War II departure of ethnic Italians
Italians
from the Yugoslav territory of Istria, as well as the cities of Zadar
Zadar
and Rijeka. Istria, Rijeka, and Zadar
Zadar
were ethnically mixed, with Croatian, Italian, and Slovene communities. Istria, Rijeka, and parts of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
including Zadar, had been annexed to Italy after World War I. At the end of World War II
World War II
the former Italian territories in Istria
Istria
and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
became part of Yugoslavia by the Treaty of peace with Italy, the only exception being the Province of Trieste
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World War II In Yugoslavia
Allied victoryDefeat of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in the Balkans Defeat and overthrow of Independent State of Croatia, Government of National Salvation, Chetniks, and other Axis collaborators Communist Partisans abolish of monarchy and establish a communist government Establishment of Democratic Federal YugoslaviaBelligerentsApril 1941:  Germany  Italy  Hungary April 1941:  Yugoslavia  1941–43:  Germany  Italy  NDHa VNSa CGa  Hungary  Bulga
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Cres
Cres
Cres
(pronounced [t͡srɛ̂ːs]; Italian: Cherso, German: Kersch, Latin: Crepsa, Greek: Χέρσος, Chersos) is an Adriatic
Adriatic
island in Croatia. It is one of the northern islands in the Kvarner Gulf
Kvarner Gulf
and can be reached via ferry from Rijeka, the island Krk
Krk
or from the Istrian peninsula (line Brestova-Porozina). With an area of 405.78 km2,[2] Cres
Cres
is the same size as the neighbouring island of Krk, although Krk
Krk
has for many years been thought the largest of the islands. Cres
Cres
has a population of 3,079 (2011).[1][3] Cres
Cres
and the neighbouring island of Lošinj
Lošinj
once used to be one island, but were divided by a channel and connected with a bridge at the town of Osor
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Kingdom Of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Treaty Of Peace With Italy (1947)
The Treaty of Peace with Italy (one of the Paris Peace Treaties) was signed on 10 February 1947 between Italy and the victorious powers of World War II, formally ending hostilities
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Province Of Trieste
The Province of Trieste
Trieste
(Italian: Provincia di Trieste, Slovene: Tržaška pokrajina) is a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Trieste. It has an area of 212 square kilometres (82 sq mi) and a total population of 234,668 (as of June 2016). It has a coastal length of 48.1 kilometres (29.9 mi). There are 6 communes in the province.Contents1 History1.1 Early history 1.2 Establishment 1.3 After World War II2 Languages 3 Comuni 4 Points of interest 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Early history[edit] After the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the area of the province of Trieste
Trieste
was ruled by the Ostrogoths, Eastern Romans (Byzantines), Lombards and by the Franks
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Republic Of Croatia
Coordinates: 45°10′N 15°30′E / 45.167°N 15.500°E / 45.167; 15.500 Republic
Republic
of Croatia Republika Hrvatska[a]FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Lijepa naša domovino" "Our Beautiful Homeland"Location of  Croatia  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Zagreb 45°48′N 16°0′E / 45.800°N 16.000°E / 45.800; 16.000Official languages CroatianRecognised national languages See Languages of Cro
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Republic Of Slovenia
Coordinates: 46°07′N 14°49′E / 46.117°N 14.817°E / 46.117; 14.817Republic of Slovenia Republika Slovenija  (Slovene)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Zdravljica  A Toast[i]Location of  Slovenia  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Ljubljana 46°03′N 14°30′E / 46.050°N 14.500°E / 46.050; 14.500Official languages Slovene[ii]Ethnic groups (2002[4])83% Slovenes 2% Serbs 2% Croats 1% Bosniaks 12% others (including Istrian Italians) / unspecifiedReligion Predominantly ChristianDemonym SloveneGovernment Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentBorut Pahor• Prime MinisterMiro Cerar[5]Legislature Parliament• Upper houseNational Council•
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Romance Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Romanisation (cultural)
Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation: see spelling differences), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire
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Venetian Language
Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language
Romance language
spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy,[7] mostly in the Veneto
Veneto
region of Italy, where most of the five million inhabitants can understand it. It is sometimes spoken and often well understood outside Veneto, in Trentino, Friuli, Venezia Giulia, Istria, and some towns of Dalmatia, Slovenia, Croatia, Brazil, Argentina
Argentina
and Mexico. Although referred to as an Italian dialect (Venetian diałeto, Italian dialetto) even by its speakers, Venetian is a separate language
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Lastovo
Lastovo
Lastovo
(pronounced [lâstɔv̞ɔ]; Italian: Lagosta, German: Augusta, Latin: Augusta Insula, Greek: Ladestanos, Illyrian: Ladest) is an island municipality in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County
Dubrovnik-Neretva County
in Croatia. The municipality consists of 46 islands with a total population of 792 people,[3] of which 93% are ethnic Croats, and a land area of approximately 53 square kilometres (20 sq mi).[4][5] The biggest island in the municipality is also named Lastovo, as is the largest town. The majority of the population lives on the 46 square kilometres (18 sq mi) island of Lastovo. Lastovo, like the rest of the Roman province of Dalmatia, was settled by Illyrians. The Romans conquered and settled the entire area, retaining control until the Avar invasions and Slavic migrations in the 7th century
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Slovenes
Slovenes
Slovenes
(Slovene: Slovenci [slɔˈʋèːntsi]), or Slovenians, are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia
Slovenia
who share a common ancest
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Palagruža
Palagruža
Palagruža
(pronounced [palǎɡruːʒa];[2] Italian: Pelagosa) is a small, remote Croatian archipelago in the middle of the Adriatic Sea. It consists of one larger island, called Vela or Velika ('Great') Palagruža, and a smaller one, Mala ('Little') Palagruža, as well as a dozen nearby rocks and reefs composed of dolomite. All the main islets are in the form of steep ridges. The place is some 123 km (76 mi) south of Split, Croatia, and 53 km (33 mi) east of the Gargano
Gargano
peninsula, Italy. It is visible from land only from other remote islands of Italy
Italy
and Croatia. Palagruža
Palagruža
is further south than the mainland peninsula of Prevlaka, making it the southernmost point of the Republic of Croatia.[3] It is uninhabited, except by lighthouse staff and occasional summer tourists
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Republic Of Srpska Krajina
The Republic of Serbian Krajina or Serb Republic of Krajina (Serbian: Република Српска Крајина / Republika Srpska Krajina or РСК/RSK), pronounced [rɛpǔblika sr̩̂pskaː krâjina]), known as Serb Krajina[a] (Serbian: Српска Крајина / Srpska Krajina) or simply Krajina, was a self-proclaimed Serb secessionist republic, a territory within the newly independent Croatia (formerly part of Yugoslavia), which it defied, active during the Croatian War (1991–95). It was not recognized internationally. The name Krajina ("Frontier") was adopted from the historical Military Frontier of the Habsburg Monarchy and Austria-Hungary, which had a substantial Serb population and existed up to the late 19th century. The RSK government waged a war for ethnic Serb independence from Croatia and unification with FR Yugoslavia and Republika Srpska (in Bosnia)
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