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Israeli Military Governorate
The Israeli Military Governorate
Israeli Military Governorate
was a military government established following the Six Day War
Six Day War
in June 1967, in order to govern the civilian population of the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula and the Western part of Golan Heights. The governance was based on the Fourth Geneva Convention, which provides guidelines for military rule in occupied areas
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Hebrew Language
Hebrew (/ˈhiːbruː/; עִבְרִית, Ivrit [ʔivˈʁit] ( listen) or [ʕivˈɾit] ( listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[8][9] Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites
Israelites
and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 1] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[10] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family
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Sinai Peninsula
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (/ˈsaɪnaɪ/;[1][2] Arabic: سِينَاء‎ Sīnāʼ ; Egyptian Arabic: سينا‎ Sīna, IPA: [ˈsiːnæ]; Classical Syriac: ܣܝܢܝ‎, Hebrew: סִינַי‬ Sinai) is a peninsula in Egypt, the only part of the country located in Asia. It is situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, and is a land bridge between Asia and Africa. Sinai has a land area of about 60,000 km2 (23,000 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1,400,000 people. Administratively, the Sinai Peninsula is divided into two governorates: the South Sinai Governorate and the North Sinai Governorate. Three other governorates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez Governorate on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia Governorate in the center, and Port Said Governorate in the north. The Sinai Peninsula has been a part of Egypt from the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (c. 3100 BC)
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Camp David Accords
The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David.[1] The two framework agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter. The second of these frameworks (A Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel) led directly to the 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty. Due to the agreement, Sadat and Begin received the shared 1978 Nobel Peace Prize
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Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Bethlehem
(/ˈbɛθlɪhɛm/; Arabic: بيت لحم‎  Bayt Lahm [beːt.laħm], "House of Meat"; Hebrew: בֵּית לֶחֶם‬ Bet Lehem, [bet ˈleχem], "House of Bread"; Ancient Greek: Βηθλεέμ Greek pronunciation: [bɛːtʰle.ém]; Latin: Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem[3]) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about 10 km (6.2 miles) south of Jerusalem. Its population is approximately 25,000 people.[4][5] It is the capital of the Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Governorate. The economy is primarily tourist-driven.[6][7] The earliest known mention of the city was in the Amarna correspondence of 1350–1330 BCE during its habitation by the Canaanites
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Yom Kippur War
Israeli military victory[22]Political gains for Egypt
Egypt
and Israel[23] 1978 Camp David
Camp David
AccordsTerritorial changesThe Egyptian army occupied the eastern coast of the
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Straits Of Tiran
The Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
(Arabic: مضيق تيران‎ Maḍīq Tīrān) are the narrow sea passages between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separate the Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
from the Red Sea
Red Sea
proper. The distance between the two peninsulas is about 13 km (7 nautical miles)
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Palestine Liberation Organization
The Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO; Arabic: منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية‎,  Munaẓẓamat at-Taḥrīr al-Filasṭīniyyah (help·info)) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.[5][6][7][8][9][7][10][11] It is recognized as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" by over 100 states with which it holds diplomatic relations,[12][13] and has enjoyed observer status at the United Nations
United Nations
since 1974.[14][15][16] The PLO was considered by the United States and Israel to be a terrorist organization[17][18] until the Madrid Conference
Madrid Conference
in 1991
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Golan Heights Law
The Golan Heights
Golan Heights
Law is the Israeli law which applies Israel's government and laws to the Golan Heights. It was ratified by the Knesset
Knesset
on December 14, 1981. The law was not recognised internationally[1] and determined null and void by United Nations Security Council Resolution 497.[2][3] The law was passed half a year before Israel's withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula. Unusually, all three readings took place on the same day. This procedure was heavily criticized by the centre-left opposition. Substantially, the law has mainly been criticized for potentially hindering future negotiations with Syria. While the Israeli public at large, and especially the law's critics, viewed it as an annexation, the law avoids the use of the word
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Jerusalem Law
The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Law (Hebrew: חוק יסוד: ירושלים בירת ישראל‎, Arabic: قانون القدس‎) is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel
Israel
passed by the Knesset
Knesset
on 30 July 1980 (17th Av, 5740).Contents1 History 2 Text of the Law 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] It began as a private member's bill proposed by Geulah Cohen, whose original text stated that "the integrity and unity of greater Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Yerushalayim rabati) in its boundaries after the Six-Day War shall not be violated." However, this clause was dropped after the first reading in the Knesset
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Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(/dʒəˈruːsələm/; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‬  Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس‎  al-Quds)[note 2] is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Fourth Geneva Convention
The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian
Civilian
Persons in Time of War, commonly referred to as the Fourth Geneva Convention and abbreviated as GCIV, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. It was adopted in August 1949. While the first three conventions dealt with combatants, the Fourth Geneva Convention
Fourth Geneva Convention
was the first to deal with humanitarian protections for civilians in a war zone
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Coordinator Of Government Activities In The Territories
The Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT) is a unit in the Israeli Ministry of Defense that engages in coordinating civilian issues between the Government of Israel, the Israel Defense Forces, international organizations, diplomats, and the Palestinian Authority. It is the main organ, remaining of the mostly defunct Israeli Civil Administration,[citation needed] which had governed the West Bank and the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
between 1981 and 1994. COGAT is responsible for implementing the Israeli government's policy in the Area C of the West Bank and vis-à-vis the Gaza Strip. In addition, COGAT constitutes the civilian authority for residential zoning and infrastructure and is responsible for addressing the needs of Israeli settlements in the West Bank. The Unit constitutes a focal point of knowledge that combines human quality and advanced technology
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Gaza Strip
 • Under the Palestinian Authority
Palestinian Authority
according to the Oslo Accords[1]  • De facto Administrated by Hamas
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Israeli Military Orders
An Israeli Military Order is a general order issued by an Israeli military commander, and applying to certain territory. It has the force of law, without any democratic control or preceding parliamentary approval. Enforcement is subjected to military courts instead of civil courts. The Military Orders system is still a basic instrument to rule the hostile Palestinian population in the West Bank, in contrast to Israeli citizens, who are usually subjected to civil courts. Military orders, as with the rest of military law in the area, "applies only to Palestinians in Areas B and C"
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