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Isoetes Tegetiformans
ISOETES TEGETIFORMANS, commonly known as MAT-FORMING QUILLWORT or MAT-FORMING MERLIN\'S GRASS, is an aquatic pteridophyte endemic to the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Georgia . It grows exclusively in shallow, temporary pools on granite outcrops, often with only 2 cm of soil. Only 7 populations are known to exist, and three of these have been destroyed since the plant's discovery in 1976. The remaining populations are threatened with habitat destruction due to quarrying, though the species is protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act
Endangered Species Act
. New leaves quickly sprout after fall and winter rains, but during the dry summer months these typically shrivel. REFERENCES * ^ A B " Isoetes
Isoetes
tegetiformans". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2008-01-25. * ^ Taylor, W. Carl; Luebke, Neil T.; Britton, Donald M.; Hickey, R. James; Brunton, Daniel F. (1993)
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Pteridophyte
A PTERIDOPHYTE sensu lato is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem ) that reproduces via spores , and therefore was a member of the former and now invalid taxon PTERIDOPHYTA. The term is now used only informally to denominate a fern (monilophyte) or lycophyte . Because pteridophytes produce neither flowers nor seeds , they are also referred to as "cryptogams ". The pteridophytes include the ferns, horsetails , and the lycophytes (clubmosses , spikemosses , and quillworts ). These are not a monophyletic group because ferns and horsetails are more closely related to seed plants than to the lycophytes. Therefore, "Pteridophyta" is now an invalid taxon, although the term pteridophyte remains in common parlance, as do pteridology and pteridologist as a science and its practitioner, to indicate lycophytes and ferns as an informal grouping, such as the International Association of Pteridologists and the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE, also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part – the SPECIFIC NAME or SPECIFIC EPITHET – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens . Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
rex is probably the most widely known binomial
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Endemism
ENDEMISM is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution . An alternative term for a species that is endemic is PRECINCTIVE, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Overview * 3 Threats to highly endemistic regions * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word endemic is from New Latin
New Latin
endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people". The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917
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U.S. State
A STATE is a constituent political entity of the United States
United States
. There are currently 50 states, which are bound together in a union with each other. Each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the United States
United States
federal government . Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans
Americans
are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside . State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states , except for persons covered by certain types of court orders (e.g., paroled convicts and children of divorced spouses who are sharing custody )
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Endangered Species Act
The ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora ( CITES
CITES
). Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation", the ESA was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973. The U.S. Supreme Court found that "the plain intent of Congress in enacting" the ESA "was to halt and reverse the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost." The Act is administered by two federal agencies, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
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Georgia (U.S. State)
GEORGIA (/ˈdʒɔːrdʒə/ ( listen ) JOR-juh ) is a state in the Southeastern United States
Southeastern United States
. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
. Named after King George II of Great Britain , the Province of Georgia
Province of Georgia
covered the area from South Carolina
South Carolina
down to Spanish Florida
Spanish Florida
and New France
New France
along Louisiana (New France) , also bordering to the west towards the Mississippi River . Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution , on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory
Mississippi Territory
, which later split to form Alabama
Alabama
with part of former West Florida in 1819
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Conservation Status
The CONSERVATION STATUS of a group of organisms (for instance, a species ) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing conservation status: not simply the number of individuals remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, and known threats. Various systems of conservation status exist and are in use at international, multi-country, national and local levels as well as for consumer use
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Isoetaceae
ISOETACEAE is a family including living quillworts (Isoetes ) and comparable extinct herbaceous lycopsids (Tomiostrobus ). REFERENCES * ^ illustration from Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany * ^ Reichenbach, H. G. L. (1828)
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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NatureServe Conservation Status
The NATURESERVE CONSERVATION STATUS system, maintained and presented by NatureServe in cooperation with the Natural Heritage Network, was developed in the United States
United States
in the 1980s by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) as a means for ranking or categorizing the relative imperilment of species of plants , animals , or other organisms , as well as natural ecological communities , on the global, national and/or subnational levels. These designations are also referred to as NatureServe ranks, NatureServe statuses, or Natural Heritage ranks. While the Nature Conservancy is no longer substantially involved in the maintenance of these ranks, the name TNC ranks is still sometimes encountered for them
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Lycopodiophyta
Lycopodiopsida - clubmosses Isoetopsida - spikemosses, quillworts, scale trees † Zosterophyllopsida - zosterophylls The Division LYCOPODIOPHYTA (sometimes called LYCOPHYTA or LYCOPODS) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae . It is one of the oldest lineages of extant (living) vascular plants and contains extinct plants like Baragwanathia that have been dated from the Silurian
Silurian
(ca. 425 million years ago). These species reproduce by shedding spores and have macroscopic alternation of generations , although some are homosporous while others are heterosporous . Most members of Lycopodiophyta
Lycopodiophyta
bear a protostele , and the sporophyte generation is dominant
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Isoetales
Chaloneriaceae † Isoetaceae Pleuromeiaceae † Nathorstianaceae † ISOETALES, formerly also written ISOëTALES, is an order of plants in the class Isoetopsida . There are about 140-150 living species, all of which are classified in the genus Isoetes (quillworts), with a cosmopolitan distribution , but often scarce to rare. Living species are mostly aquatic or semi-aquatic, and are found in clear ponds and slowly moving streams. Each leaf is slender and broadens downward to a swollen base up to 5 mm wide where the leaves attach in clusters to a bulb-like, underground corm characteristic of most quillworts. This swollen base also contains male and female sporangia , protected by a thin, transparent covering (velum ), which is used diagnostically to help identify quillwort species. Quillwort species are very difficult to distinguish by general appearance. The best way to identify them is by examining the megaspores under a microscope
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Isoetopsida
Glossopsida Selaginellopsida The ISOETOPSIDA is a class of Lycopodiophyta . All extant species belong to the genus Selaginella in the order Selaginellales or to the genus Isoetes in the order Isoetales . In the past, members of this group sometimes have been placed in the classes Isoetopsida, Selaginellopsida, or Lycopodiopsida. There are c. 700 species of Selaginella and 140-150 species of Isoetes, with a cosmopolitan distribution , but often scarce to rare. Some botanists split Isoetes by separating two South American species into the genus Stylites. Some prefer the name SELAGINELLOPSIDA A.B. Frank 1877, which has priority over "Isoetopsida"; the latter was not published until 1885. However, priority does not apply above the rank of family. Recent articles favor "Isoetopsida" because "Selaginellopsida" sometimes is ambiguously used: it may denote the same membership as Isoetopsida as described herein or it may include only the order Selaginellales
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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