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Islamization Of Iran
The Islamization
Islamization
of Iran occurred as a result of the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Persia. It was a long process by which Islam, though long rejected, was gradually accepted by the majority of the population. On the other hand, Iranians have maintained certain pre-Islamic traditions, including language and culture, and adapted them with Islamic codes. Finally these two customs and traditions merged as the "Iranian Islamic" identity.[1] The Islamization
Islamization
of Iran was to yield deep transformations within the cultural, scientific, and political structure of Iran's society: The blossoming of Persian literature, philosophy, medicine and art became major elements of the newly forming Muslim
Muslim
civilization
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Alid Dynasties Of Northern Iran
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Qarinvand Dynasty
The Qarinvand dynasty
Qarinvand dynasty
(also spelled Karinvand, Karenvand, and Qarenvand), or simply the Karinids or Qarinids, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
(Mazandaran) in what is now northern Iran
Iran
from the 550s until the 11th-century. They considered themselves as the inheritors of the Dabuyid dynasty, and were known by their titles of Gilgilan and Ispahbadh. They were descended from Sukhra, a Parthian nobleman from the House of Karen, who was the de facto ruler of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
from 484 to 493.Contents1 History 2 Known Qarinvand rulers 3 References 4 SourcesHistory[edit] The dynasty was founded by Karen, who in return for aiding the Sasanian king Khosrow I
Khosrow I
(r. 531–579) against the Turks, received land to the south of Amol
Amol
in Tabaristan
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Kingdom Of Cappadocia
The Kingdom of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
was a Hellenistic-era Iranian kingdom[1][2] centered in the historical region of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey). It developed from the former Achaemenid satrapy of Cappadocia, and it was founded by its last satrap, Ariarathes (later Ariarathes I). Throughout its history, it was ruled by three families in succession; the House of Ariarathes (331-96 BC), the House of Ariobarzanes (96 BC-36 BC), and lastly that of Archelaus (36 BC-17 AD)
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Sajid Dynasty
The Sajid dynasty
Sajid dynasty
(Persian: ساجیان‎), was an Iranian Muslim dynasty that ruled from 889-890 until 929. Sajids ruled Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and parts of Armenia
Armenia
first from Maragha
Maragha
and Barda and then from Ardabil.[1] The Sajids originated from the Central Asian
Central Asian
province of Ushrusana and were of Iranian (Sogdian)[2][3][4] descent. Muhammad ibn Abi'l-Saj Diwdad the son of Diwdad, the first Sajid ruler of Azerbaijan, was appointed as its ruler in 889 or 890. Muhammad's father Abu'l-Saj Devdad had fought under the Ushrusanan prince Afshin Khaydar during the latter's final campaign against the rebel Babak Khorramdin in Azerbaijan, and later served the caliphs
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Kingdom Of Pontus
The Kingdom of Pontus
Kingdom of Pontus
or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty,[1][2][3][4] which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty.[4] The kingdom was proclaimed by Mithridates I in 281 BCE and lasted until its conquest by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in 63 BCE. It reached its largest extent under Mithridates VI
Mithridates VI
the Great, who conquered Colchis, Cappadocia, Bithynia, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos, and for a brief time the Roman province of Asia
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Persian Mythology
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Suren Kingdom
The Suren Kingdom, also known as the Indo-Parthians, was a kingdom ruled by the House of Suren from c. 119 BC to 240 AD. The kingdom mainly ruled in Sakastan
Sakastan
during its whole existence, but at its zenith, it stretched as far as Sindh. In 240, the kingdom was incorporated into the Sasanian Empire.Contents1 Origin 2 History 3 List of rulers 4 SourcesOrigin[edit]This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2016)History[edit]This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2016)List of rulers[edit] The following list shows the known rulers of the kingdom:Vonones of Sakastan
Sakastan
(75–65 BC) Surena (??? - 53 BC) Gondophares
Gondophares
(r. 19 AD - 46) Abdagases I
Abdagases I
(r. 46 - ???) Ardashir Sakanshah (??? - 240)Sources[edit]Greatrex, Geoffrey; Lieu, Samuel N. C. (2002)
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Zarmihrids
The Zarmihrid dynasty was a local dynasty of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
which ruled over parts of the mountainous areas of the region since the reign of Sasanian
Sasanian
king Khosrau I
Khosrau I
to 785. The family claimed its origin from a powerful Karen lord named Sukhra, a descendant of Kaveh the blacksmith, the national hero of Iran, and who was one of the leading nobles of the empire during the reign of Balash
Balash
and Kavadh I. According to a traditional story, Sukhra
Sukhra
left two children, Karin and Zarmihr, who helped Khosrau I
Khosrau I
protect the eastern borders of his empire when it was invaded by Turkic nomads. Karin was rewarded with land in the south of Amol, and was given title of Ispahbadh, thus starting the Karen dynasty of Tabaristan
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Rashidun Caliphate
The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎ al-Khilāfa-al-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad
Muhammad
after his death in 632 CE (AH 11). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn)
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Kingdom Of Armenia (antiquity)
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia,[3] or simply Greater Armenia
Armenia
(Armenian: Մեծ Հայք Mets Hayk;[4] Latin: Armenia
Armenia
Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD. Its history is divided into successive reigns by three royal dynasties: Orontid (321 BC–200 BC),[5][6] Artaxiad (189 BC–12 AD) and Arsacid (52–428). The root of the kingdom lies in one of the satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire
Empire
of Persia
Persia
called Armenia
Armenia
( Satrapy
Satrapy
of Armenia), which was formed from the territory of the Kingdom of Ararat (860 BC–590 BC) after it was conquered by the Median Empire
Empire
in 590 BC
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Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Dabuyid Dynasty
The Dabuyid or Gaubarid Dynasty was a Zoroastrian[1] Iranian dynasty that started in the early seventh century as an independent group of rulers, reigning over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and parts of western Khorasan.[2] Dabuyid rule over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and Khorasan lasted from ca. AD 642 to the Abbasid
Abbasid
conquest in 760.Contents1 History 2 Dabuyid rulers 3 References 4 SourcesHistory[edit] The family's early history is semi-mythical, and recorded by the later historian Ibn Isfandiyar. According to this story, the Dabuyids were descended from a brother of the Sassanid
Sassanid
shah Kavadh I. His grandson Firuz conquered Gilan, and Firuz's grandson Gil, surnamed Gavbara, then extended the family's rule over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
as well
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Bavand Dynasty
The Bavand dynasty
Bavand dynasty
(Persian: باوندیان‎) (also spelled Bavend), or simply the Bavandids, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
(Mazandaran) in what is now northern Iran
Iran
from 651 until 1349, alternating between outright independence and submission as vassals to more powerful regional rulers.Contents1 Origins 2 History2.1 Kayusiyya line3 Culture 4 Bavandid rulers4.1 Kayusiyya 4.2 Ispahbadhiyya 4.3 Kinkhwariyya5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksOrigins[edit] The dynasty itself traced its descent back to Bav, who was alleged to be a grandson of the Sasanian
Sasanian
prince Kawus, brother of Khosrau I,[1] and son of the shah Kavadh I
Kavadh I
(ruled 488–531), who supposedly fled to Tabaristan
Tabaristan
from the Muslim conquest of Persia
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Masmughans Of Damavand
The Masmughans of Damavand
Masmughans of Damavand
(Middle Persian: Masmughan-i Dumbawand, New Persian: مس مغان دماوند, meaning Great Magians of Damavand) were a local dynasty, which ruled Damavand and its surrounding areas from ca. 651 to 760. The founder of the dynasty was a Karenid[1] named Mardanshah of Damavand.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 SourcesHistory[edit] The Masmughans of Damavand
Masmughans of Damavand
are first mentioned by Al-Tabari, where the Masmughan Mardanshah of Damavand reportedly aided the Mihranid Siyavakhsh at Ray against the Arabs. The forces of Siyavakhsh and Mardanshah, were, however, defeated
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