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Islamic Philosopher
In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics and physics;[1] and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a kind of philosophy based on interpretations of Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
and Neoplatonism. Islamic philosophy has also been described as the systematic investigation of problems connected with life, the universe, ethics, society, and so on as conducted in the Muslim
Muslim
world. Early Islamic philosophy
Early Islamic philosophy
began in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasted until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE)
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Islamic Studies
Islamic studies
Islamic studies
refers to the study of Islam
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Ahl Al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
(Arabic: أهل البيت‎, Persian: اهلِ بیت‎), also Āl al-Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House". Within the Islamic tradition, the term refers to the family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[1] In Shia Islam
Shia Islam
the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
are central to Islam
Islam
and interpreters of the Quran
Quran
and Sunnah. Shias believe they are successors of Muhammad and consist of Muhammad, Fatimah, Ali, Hasan, and Husayn (known collectively as the Ahl al-Kisa, "people of the mantle") and the Imams the Fourteen Infallibles
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Sahabah
The term aṣ-ṣaḥābah (Arabic: الصحابة‎ meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[1][2] This form is definite plural; the indefinite singular is masculine sahabi (ṣaḥābī), feminine sahabia (ṣaḥābīyat). Later scholars accepted their testimony of the words and deeds of Muhammad, the occasions on which the Quran
Quran
was revealed and various important matters of Islamic history and practice
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Rashidun
OthersZahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi JaririSunni schools of theologyAsh'ari Maturidi TraditionalistOthers:Mu'tazila Murji'ahContemporary movementsAhl-i Hadith Al-Ahbash Barelvi Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi movement WahhabismHoly sitesJerusalem Mecca Medina Mount SinaiListsLiteratureKutub al-Sittah Islam
Islam
portalv t eThe Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; Arabic: الخلفاء الراشدون‎ al-Khulafāʾu ar-Rāshidūn), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam
Islam
to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan, and Ali
Ali
of the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate, the first caliphate
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Imamah (Shia Doctrine)
Sunni
Sunni
theological traditionsIlm al-KalamAsh'ari1 Maturidi Sunni
Sunni
Murji'ah Traditionalist2Shi'a Twelver3PrinciplesTawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah QiyamahPracticesSalah Sawm Zakat Hajj Khums Jihad Commandin
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Caliphate
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/, Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah,  pronunciation (help·info)), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim
Muslim
community.[1] Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam
Islam
which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[2] During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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Spread Of Islam
Early Muslim conquests
Early Muslim conquests
in the years following the Prophet Muhammad's death led to the creation of the caliphates, occupying a vast geographical area and conversion to Islam
Islam
was boosted by missionary activities particularly those of Imams, who easily intermingled with local populace to propagate the religious teachings.[1] These early caliphates, coupled with Muslim
Muslim
economics and trading and the later expansion of the Ottoman Empire, resulted in Islam's spread outwards from Mecca
Mecca
towards both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the creation of the Muslim
Muslim
world
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Islamic Culture
PoliticalHizb ut-Tahrir Iranian Revolution Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood List of Islamic political partiesMilitantMilitant Islamism
Islamism
based inMENA region S
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Islamic Calendar
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري‎ at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used (often alongside the Gregorian calendar) to date events in many Muslim
Muslim
countries. It is also used by Muslims to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
employs the Hijri era
Hijri era
whose epoch was retrospectively established as the Islamic New Year
Islamic New Year
of AD 622. During that year, Muhammad
Muhammad
and his followers migrated from Mecca
Mecca
to Yathrib (now Medina) and established the first Muslim
Muslim
community (ummah), an event commemorated as the Hijra
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Muslim Holidays
There are two official holidays in Islam: Eid Al-Fitr
Eid Al-Fitr
and Eid Al-Adha. Eid Al-Fitr
Eid Al-Fitr
is celebrated at the end of Ramadan
Ramadan
(a month of fasting during daylight hours), and Muslims usually give zakat (charity) on the occasion. Eid Al-Adha
Eid Al-Adha
is celebrated on the tenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah and lasts for four days, during which Muslims usually slaughter a sheep and distribute its meat in 3 parts: among family, friends, and the poor. Both of the holidays occur on dates in the Arabic (Islamic) calendar, which is lunar, and thus their dates in the Gregorian calendar, which is solar, change each year
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Islamic Art
Islamic
Islamic
art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic
Islamic
populations.[1] It is thus a very difficult art to define because it covers many lands and various peoples over some 1,400 years; it is not art specifically of a religion, or of a time, or of a place, or of a single medium like painting.[2] The huge field of Islamic
Islamic
architecture is the subject of a separate article, leaving fields as varied as calligraphy, painting, glass, pottery, and textile arts such as carpets and embroidery. Islamic
Islamic
art is not at all restricted to religious art, but includes all the art of the rich and varied cultures of Islamic
Islamic
societies as well
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Iman (concept)
Iman (إِيمَان ʾīmān, lit. faith or belief) in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam.[1][2] Its most simple definition is the belief in the six articles of faith, known as arkān al-īmān. The term iman has been delineated in both the Quran
Quran
and the Hadith
Hadith
of Gabriel.[3] According to the Quran, iman must be accompanied by righteous deeds and the two together are necessary for entry into Paradise.[4] In the Hadith
Hadith
of Gabriel, iman in addition to Islam
Islam
and ihsan form the three dimensions of the Islamic religion. There exists a debate both within and outside Islam
Islam
on the link between faith and reason in religion, and the relative importance of either
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Morality In Islam
Morality
Morality
in Islam
Islam
is a comprehensive term that serves to include the concept of righteousness, good character, and the body of moral qualities and virtues prescribed in Islamic religious texts. The underlying idea of Islamic morality is that of love: love for God
God
and love for God's creatures. The idea is that mankind will acquire and follow the body of moral qualities in order to seek God's pleasure and to treat the fellow human beings in the best possible manner.[1][2] Teaching on morality and moral conduct constitute a basic principle of Islam, and the moral themes form a large part of it
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Islam And Children
The topic of Islam
Islam
and children includes the rights of children in Islam, the duties of children towards their parents, and the rights of parents over their children, both biological and foster children. Also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thought.Contents1 In the Qur'an 2 Muhammad 3 Breast-feeding 4 Orphaned children 5 Rights of children 6 Rights of parents 7 Marriage7.1 Consent 7.2 Age of marriage8 Adoption and fostering 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External linksIn the Qur'an[edit] The Qur'an
Qur'an
uses various terms for children (e.g. Arabic terms dhurriyya; ghulām; ibn; walad; walīd; mawlūd; ṣabī; tifl; saghir), but, according to Avner Giladi, the context seldom makes it clear whether it is exclusively referring to non-mature children, or simply offspring
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