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Islamic Golden Age
The ISLAMIC GOLDEN AGE is the era in the history of Islam , traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world
Islamic world
was ruled by various caliphates , and science , economic development and cultural works flourished. This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliph Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
(786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad
Baghdad
, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language
Arabic language

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History Of China
Written records of the HISTORY OF CHINA can be found from as early as 1500 BC under the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC). Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (ca. 100 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (before 296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC), which had no system of writing on a durable medium, before the Shang. The Yellow River 's Yellow river civilization is said to be the cradle of Chinese civilization, although cultures originated at various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River 's Yangtze civilization millennia ago in the Neolithic era. With thousands of years of continuous history, China
China
is one of the world's oldest civilizations , and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization
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Prophetic Traditions
PROPHETIC TRADITIONS refers to any written or oral prophecies within a culture, usually of religious nature. A major source of such early prophetic traditions comes from the Jewish religion where it is called Masorah , and is identified in Oral Torah , notably in the Pirkei Avot
Pirkei Avot
that spans the tradition from Moses to the time of the Second Temple
Second Temple
. In the Christian prophetic tradition the texts are reflected in the New Testament
New Testament
. The Islamic prophetic tradition is exemplified by the Hadith
Hadith
The Mormon
Mormon
prophetic tradition was started by Joseph Smith, Jr.
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Medical Research Council (United Kingdom)
2nd Floor David Phillips Building Polaris House North Star Avenue Swindon
Swindon
Wiltshire
Wiltshire
SN2 1FL REGION SERVED United Kingdom CHIEF EXECUTIVE Sir John Savill CHAIRMAN Donald Brydon CBE MAIN ORGAN MRC Council PARENT ORGANIZATION Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
Research Councils UK
Research Councils UK
AFFILIATIONS AHRC , BBSRC , EPSRC , ESRC , NERC , STFC , TSB , UKSA WEBSITE mrc.ac.ukThe MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (MRC) is a publicly funded government agency responsible for co-ordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom
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Ancient Egypt
ANCIENT EGYPT was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa , concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
Egypt
. Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt
Egypt
and coalesced around 3100 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology
Egyptian chronology
) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
Egypt
under Menes (often identified with Narmer
Narmer
). The history of ancient Egypt
Egypt
occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age , the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age
Middle Bronze Age
and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age
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Phoenicia
Coordinates : 34°07′25″N 35°39′04″E / 34.12361°N 35.65111°E / 34.12361; 35.65111 Phoenicia knʿn / kanaʿan (Phoenician ) Φοινίκη / Phoiníkē (Greek ) 1500 BC –539 BC Map of Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and its Mediterranean trade routes CAPITAL * Byblos
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Christian Influences In Islam
INFLUENCES is the debut solo album by the British musician, Mark King , who is the singer and bass player with Level 42 . It was released by Polydor Records
Polydor Records
in July 1984. The album features a cover of the song " I Feel Free " by Cream , which was released as a single. King played most of the instruments on the album. Guest musicians include Level 42 keyboardist Mike Lindup and Drummie Zeb from Aswad , who played drums on "Clocks Go Forward"
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Al-Ma'mun
ABū JAʿFAR ABDULLāH AL-MAʾMūN IBN HāRūN AL-RASHīD ( Arabic
Arabic
: ابوجعفر عبدالله المأمون‎‎; September 786 – 9 August 833) was the seventh Abbasid
Abbasid
caliph , who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. He succeeded his brother al-Amin after a civil war , and was also known for his role in the Mu\'tazilism controversy, and the resumption of large-scale warfare with the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire

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Crusades
AFTER 1291 * Poor 1309 * Shepherds\' 1320 * Smyrniote 1343–1351 * Alexandrian 1365 * Savoyard 1366 * Barbary 1390 * Nicopolis 1396 * Varna
Varna
1443 * Portuguese 1481 NORTHERN CRUSADES (1147–1410) * Wendish 1147 * Swedish * 1150 * 1249 * 1293 * Livonian 1198–1290 * Prussian 1217–1274 * Lithuanian 1283–1410 AGAINST CHRISTIANS * Bosnian 1235–1241 * Albigensian 1209–1229 * Aragonese 1284/5 * Despenser\'s 1382/3 * Hussite 1419–1434 ------------------------- * BOOK:THE CRUSADES * PORTAL:CRUSADES Map of the Eastern Mediterranean in 1135. The Frankish Crusader states are indicated with a red cross ☩: Kingdom of Jerusalem , County of Tripoli
County of Tripoli
, Principality of Antioch
Principality of Antioch
, County of Edessa
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First Fitna
The FIRST FITNA (Arabic : فتنة مقتل عثمان‎, translit. Fitnat Maqtal ʿUthmān, lit. 'Fitna of the Killing of Uthman'‎) was a civil war within the Rashidun Caliphate which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty . It began when the caliph Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated by Egyptian rebels in 656 and continued through the four-year reign of Uthman's successor Ali ibn Abi Talib . It ended in 661 when Ali's heir Hasan ibn Ali concluded a treaty acknowledging the rule of Muawiyah , the first Umayyad caliph
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Umar
Umar
Umar
ibn Al-Khaṭṭāb Arabic : عمر بن الخطاب‎‎ TRIBE Quraysh ( Banu Adi ) FATHER Khattab ibn Nufayl MOTHER Hantamah binti Hisham UMAR VENERATED IN All of Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
(Salafi Sunnis honor rather than venerate him).UMAR (/ˈuːmɑːr/ ), also spelled OMAR (/ˈoʊmɑːr/ ; Arabic : عمر بن الخطاب ‎, translit. ʿ Umar
Umar
ibn Al-Khattāb, lit. 'Umar, Son of Al-Khattab'‎, born c.584 CE – died 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history. He was a senior companion of the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
. He succeeded Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
(632–634) as the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate
Caliphate
on 23 August 634
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Maqama
MAQāMAH (مقامة, pl. maqāmāt, مقامات, literally "assemblies") are an (originally) Arabic
Arabic
prosimetric literary genre which alternates the Arabic
Arabic
rhymed prose known as Saj‘ with intervals of poetry in which rhetorical extravagance is conspicuous. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Structure * 3 Origins * 4 Development in Hebrew * 5 Bibliography * 6 Notes TERMINOLOGYThe origins of the usage of the word as a genre-label are debated. But according to Amina Shah, The meaning of the word Makamat is derived from "a place where one stands upright" and hence the place where one is at any time. Next it is used metonymically to denote "the persons assembled at any place" and finally, by another translation, "the discourses delivered or conversations held in any such assembly"
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Mongol Invasions And Conquests
MONGOL INVASIONS AND CONQUESTS took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
, which by 1300 covered much of Asia
Asia
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. Historians regard the destruction under the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
as results of some of the deadliest conflicts in human history. In addition, Mongol expeditions brought the bubonic plague along with them, spreading it across much of Asia
Asia
and Europe and helping cause massive loss of life in the Black Death
Black Death
of the 14th century. The Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
developed in the course of the 13th century through a series of conquests and invasions throughout Asia, reaching Eastern Europe by the 1240s
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Greek Philosophers
ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Philosophy
Philosophy
was used to make sense out of the world in a non-religious way. It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including political philosophy , ethics , metaphysics , ontology , logic , biology , rhetoric , and aesthetics . Many philosophers around the world agree that Greek philosophy has influenced much of Western culture
Western culture
since its inception
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Indian Influence On Islamic Science
The Golden Age of Islam
Golden Age of Islam
saw a flourishing of Islamic science
Islamic science
, notably mathematics and astronomy , especially during the 9th and 10th centuries. While Islamic science
Islamic science
mostly relied on Hellenistic predecessors, there was also significant input from the Sanskrit scholarly tradition of India , which had seen a period of fruitful development during the Gupta era (4th to 6th centuries). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Astronomy * 3 Mathematics * 4 Medical texts * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYFor the best part of a millennium, from the Seleucid era and through to the Sassanid period , there had been an exchange of scholarship between the Greek , Persian and Indian cultural spheres
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