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Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.[1] Also, when used as an adjective, the term revolutionary refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor.Contents1 Definition 2 Revolution
Revolution
and ideology 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinition[edit] The term —both as a noun and adjective— is usually applied to the field of politics, and is occasionally used in the context of science, invention or art. In politics, a revolutionary is someone who supports abrupt, rapid, and drastic change, while a reformist is someone who supports more gradual and incremental change. A conservative is someone who generally opposes such changes
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The Revolutionist
"The Revolutionist" is an Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
short story published in his first American volume of stories In Our Time. Originally written as a vignette for his earlier Paris edition of the collection, titled in our time, he rewrote and expanded the piece for the 1925 American edition published by Boni & Liveright. It is only one of two vignettes rewritten as short stories for the American edition.[1] The story is about a young Hungarian magyar communist revolutionary fleeing the Hungarian White Terror to Italy. There he visits museums, where he sees some Renaissance
Renaissance
paintings he likes, while declaring his dislike for the painter Mantegna. "The Revolutionist" has received scant attention from literary critics with only a cursory examination of the art mentioned in the short story
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Famine
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food,[1] caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies. This phenomenon is usually accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality. Every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history. In the 19th and 20th century, it was generally Southeast and South Asia, as well as Eastern and Central Europe
Europe
that suffered the most deaths from famine. The numbers dying from famine began to fall sharply from the 1970s. Some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to have extreme cases of famine. Since 2010, Africa
Africa
has been the most affected continent in the world
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Capitalism
Capitalism
Capitalism
is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.[1][2][3] Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system, and competitive markets.[4][5] In a capitalist market economy, decision-making and investment are determined by every owner of wealth, property or production ability in financial and capital markets, whereas prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in goods and services markets.[6][7] Economists, political economists, sociologists and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire or free market capitalism, welfare capitalism and state capitalism
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Collaborationism
Collaborationism
Collaborationism
is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.[1] Stanley Hoffmann subdivided collaboration ontoinvoluntary (reluctant recognition of necessity) and voluntary (an attempt of exploiting necessity).[2]According to him, collaborationism can be subdivided ontoservile and ideological,the former is a deliberate service to an enemy, whereas the latter is a deliberate advocacy of co-operation with the foreign force which is seen as a champion of some desirable domestic transformations.[2] In contrast, Bertram Gordon used the terms "collaborator" and "collaborationist" for non-ideological and ideological collaborations, respectively.[3] Poor choices of voluntary collaborators may further undermine the already weak legitimacy of an occupation regime
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Colonialism
Colonialism
Colonialism
is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health. The European colonial period was the era from the 15th century to 1914 when Spain, Portugal, Britain, Russia, France, the Netherlands, Germany, and several smaller European countries such a Belgium and Italy, established colonies outside Europe.[1] It has been estimated that by 1914, Europeans had gained control of 84% of the globe, and by 1800, before the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
had taken hold, they already controlled at least 35% (excluding Antarctica).[2] The system practically ended between 1945–1975 when nearly all colonies became independent
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Cronyism
Cronyism is the practice of partiality in awarding jobs and other advantages to friends, family relatives or trusted colleagues, especially in politics and between politicians and supportive organizations.[1] For instance, this includes appointing "cronies" to positions of authority, regardless of their qualifications.[2] Cronyism exists when the appointer and the beneficiary such as an appointee are in social or business contact. Often, the appointer needs support in his or her own proposal, job or position of authority, and for this reason the appointer appoints individuals who will not try to weaken his or her proposals, vote against issues, or express views contrary to those of the appointer
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Despotism
Despotism
Despotism
(Greek: Δεσποτισμός, Despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. Normally, that entity is an individual, the despot, as in an autocracy, but societies which limit respect and power to specific groups have also been called despotic.[1] Colloquially, the word despot applies pejoratively to those who abuse their power and authority to oppress their populace, subjects, or subordinates. More specifically, the term often applies to a head of state or government
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Dictatorship
Dictatorship
Dictatorship
is a system of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by a single party or individual (a dictator) or by a polity and power is exercised through various mechanisms to ensure that the entity's power remains strong.[1][2] A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the West. In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared
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Discrimination
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong rather than on individual attributes
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Depression (economics)
In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a recession, which is a slowdown in economic activity over the course of a normal business cycle. A depression is an unusual and extreme form of recession. Depressions are characterized by their length, by abnormally large increases in unemployment, falls in the availability of credit (often due to some form of banking or financial crisis), shrinking output as buyers dry up and suppliers cut back on production and investment, large number of bankruptcies including sovereign debt defaults, significantly reduced amounts of trade and commerce (especially international trade), as well as highly volatile relative currency value fluctuations (often due to currency devaluations)
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Economic Inequality
Economic inequality
Economic inequality
is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries. Economic inequality
Economic inequality
sometimes refers to income inequality, wealth inequality, or the wealth gap. Economists generally focus on economic disparity in three metrics: wealth, income, and consumption.[1] The issue of economic inequality is relevant to notions of equity, equality of outcome, and equality of opportunity.[2] Economic inequality
Economic inequality
varies between societies, historical periods, economic structures and systems. The term can refer to cross-sectional distribution of income or wealth at any particular period, or to changes of income and wealth over longer periods of time.[3] There are various numerical indices for measuring economic inequality
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Electoral Fraud
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both. What constitutes electoral fraud varies from country to country. Many kinds of election fraud are outlawed in electoral legislation, but others are in violation of general laws, such as those banning assault, harassment or libel
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Fascism
Fascism
Fascism
(/ˈfæʃɪzəm/) is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism,[1][2] characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce,[3] which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.[4] The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I
World War I
before it spread to other European countries.[4] Opposed to liberalism, Marxism
Marxism
and anarchism, fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.[5][6][7][4][8][9] Fascists saw World War I
World War I
as a revolution that brought massive changes to the nature of war, society, the state and technology. The advent of total war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants
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Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms
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Feudalism
Feudalism
Feudalism
was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries
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