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Islamic Modernism
Islamic Modernism, also sometimes referred to as Modernist Salafism,[1][2][3][4][5] is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response"[Note 1] attempting to reconcile Islamic faith with modern Western values such as nationalism, democracy, civil rights, rationality, equality, and progress.[7] It featured a "critical reexamination of the classical conceptions and methods of jurisprudence" and a new approach to Islamic theology and Quranic exegesis (Tafsir).[6] It was the first of several Islamic movements – including secularism, Islamism
Islamism
and
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Mahmud Shaltut
Sheikh
Sheikh
Mahmoud Shaltut (23 April 1893 - 13 December 1963) was a prominent Egyptian Sunni
Sunni
religious scholar and Islamic theologian
Islamic theologian
best known for his work in Islamic reform. A disciple of Mohammad Abduh’s school of thought, Shaltut rose to prominence as Grand Imam of Al-Azhar during the Nasser years from 1958 until his death in 1963.Contents1 Early life 2 Time at Al-Azhar 3 As Sheikh
Sheikh
al-Azhar: Beliefs, Ideas, and Reforms 4 Legacy 5 Major Works 6 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Born in Buhayra, a province in Lower Egypt, Sheikh
Sheikh
Shaltut left his small village, Binyat Bani Mansur, in 1906 at age thirteen and enrolled in Ma’hd dini of Alexandria- a newly established Azhar- affiliated religious institute
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Mahmoud Shaltout
Sheikh
Sheikh
Mahmoud Shaltut (23 April 1893 - 13 December 1963) was a prominent Egyptian Sunni
Sunni
religious scholar and Islamic theologian
Islamic theologian
best known for his work in Islamic reform. A disciple of Mohammad Abduh’s school of thought, Shaltut rose to prominence as Grand Imam of Al-Azhar during the Nasser years from 1958 until his death in 1963.Contents1 Early life 2 Time at Al-Azhar 3 As Sheikh
Sheikh
al-Azhar: Beliefs, Ideas, and Reforms 4 Legacy 5 Major Works 6 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Born in Buhayra, a province in Lower Egypt, Sheikh
Sheikh
Shaltut left his small village, Binyat Bani Mansur, in 1906 at age thirteen and enrolled in Ma’hd dini of Alexandria- a newly established Azhar- affiliated religious institute
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Sunnah
Sunnah
Sunnah
(sunnah, سنة, Arabic: [sunna], plural سنن sunan [sunan]) is the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.[1][2] The Quran
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Hadith
Ḥadīth (/ˈhædɪθ/[1] or /hɑːˈdiːθ/;[2] Arabic: حديث‎ ḥadīth, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث, ʼaḥādīth[3], also "Traditions") in Islam
Islam
denotes the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam
Islam
the authority of Ḥadīth as a source for religious law ranks inferior only to the Qur'an
Qur'an
— which Muslims hold to be the word of Allah
Allah
revealed to his messenger Muhammad
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Quran
The Quran
Quran
(/kɔːrˈɑːn/[a] kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآن‎ al-Qurʾān,[b] literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran[c]) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God
God
(Allah).[1] It is wide
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Maqasid
Maqasid
Maqasid
is an Arabic
Arabic
word for goals or purposes. In an Islamic context, the term can refer to the purposes of Islamic
Islamic
faith, zakat (charity tax), pilgrimage, or of the Qur'an's and Sunnah's text. In terms of Shariah, there are five foundational goals (maqasid al-Shariah)
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Polygyny
Polygyny
Polygyny
(/pəˈlɪdʒɪniː/; from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife"[1]) is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women. Most countries that permit polygamy are Muslim-majority countries
Muslim-majority countries
in which polygyny is the only form permitted. Polyandry
Polyandry
is illegal in virtually every state of the world. In some countries where polygamy is illegal, and sometimes even when legal, at times it is known for men to have one or more mistresses, whom they do not marry
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Muhammad Iqbal
Muhammad Iqbal
Muhammad Iqbal
(Urdu: محمد اِقبال‬‎) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar[1][2] in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement
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Mahathir Mohammed
Prime Minister of MalaysiaPenang Bridge Putrajaya Cyberjaya KL Tower Petronas
Petronas
Towers KLIA North–South Expressway IIUM Guthrie's acquisition MEASAT Sepang Circuit ProtonSagaLangkawi NDP 1993 Constitution amendments Wawasan 2020 IBFC KL Sentral PTP Southern Integrated Gateway DRB-HICOM MSC ANGKASA PPSMI SMART TunnelCabinetsMahathir I Mahathir II Mahathir III Mahathir IV Mahathir V Mahathir VIPresident of UMNO
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Ulama
The Arabic
Arabic
term ulama (/ˈuːləˌmɑː/; Arabic: علماء‎ ʿUlamāʾ, singular عالِم ʿĀlim, "scholar", literally "the learned ones",[1] also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah [singular] and uluma [plural]), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
(2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".[2] More specifically, in the context of Sunni Islam, ulama are regarded as "the guardians, transmitters and interpreters of religious knowledge, of Islamic doctrine and law".[2] By longstanding tradition, ulama are educated in religious institutions (madrasas)
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Co-option
Co-option (also co-optation, sometimes spelled coöption or coöptation) has two common meanings. It may refer to the process of adding members to an elite group at the discretion of members of the body, usually to manage opposition and so maintain the stability of the group. Outsiders are ‘co-opted’ by being given a degree of power on the grounds of their élite status, specialist knowledge, or potential ability to threaten essential commitments or goals ("formal co-optation").[1] In a classic 1979 article for Harvard Business Review, consultants John Kotter
John Kotter
and Leonard Schlesinger presented co-optation as a "form of manipulation" for dealing with employees who are resistant to new management programs:Co-opting an individual usually involves giving him or her a desirable role in the design or implementation of the change
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RIBA
Coordinates: 51°31′17″N 0°08′42″W / 51.521283°N 0.14508°W / 51.521283; -0.14508Royal Institute of British ArchitectsAbbreviation RIBAFormation 1834Type Professional bodyLegal status Chartered body corporate and registered charityPurpose The architectural profession in the United Kingdom, and knowledge disseminationHeadquarters 66 Portland Place Marylebone, London W1B 1ADRegion servedUKMembershipc
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Abd El-Razzak El-Sanhuri
Abd el-Razzak el-Sanhuri or ‘Abd al-Razzāq al-Sanhūrī (1895–1971) (Arabic: عبد الرزاق السنهوري‎) was an Egyptian, legal scholar and professor who drafted the revised Egyptian Civil Code of 1948. He wrote the draft of the Iraqi Civil Code with the help of many Iraqi jurists guided by him. el-Sanhuri was born to a poor family and, he was orphaned. His father was an employee in Municipal Council. el-Sanhuri obtained his secondary school certificate in 1913 and then joined the faculty of Law, Cairo University where he obtained his BA in 1917 and he was influenced by the revolution of 1919
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Muhammad Asad
Muhammad Asad
Asad
(pronounced [ˈmoʊ̯hämæd ˈæsæd] ( listen), Arabic: محمد أسد‎ /muħammad ʔasad/, Urdu: محمد أسد‬‎, born Leopold Weiss; 12 July 1900[17] – 20 February 1992[18][19]) was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian Muslim
Muslim

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Colonialism
Colonialism
Colonialism
is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health. The European colonial period was the era from the 15th century to 1914 when Spain, Portugal, Britain, Russia, France, the Netherlands, Germany, and several smaller European countries such a Belgium and Italy, established colonies outside Europe.[1] It has been estimated that by 1914, Europeans had gained control of 84% of the globe, and by 1800, before the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
had taken hold, they already controlled at least 35% (excluding Antarctica).[2] The system practically ended between 1945–1975 when nearly all colonies became independent
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