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Islamia Hadei
Horatia hadei Gittenberger, 1982 ISLAMIA HADEI is a species of small freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum , an aquatic gastropod mollusc or micromollusc in the family Hydrobiidae . CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomic note * 2 Geographic distribution * 3 Conservation status * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links TAXONOMIC NOTE Fauna Europaea recognises two subspecies : Islamia hadei subsp. hadei (E. Gittenberger 1982) and Islamia hadei subsp. molai (A. Reischutz however, it may still survive in groundwater or a small remnant of the spring. SEE ALSO * List of non-marine molluscs of Greece
Greece
REFERENCES * ^ Falniowski, A. & Régnier, C. (2011). " Islamia hadei". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Species
. IUCN
IUCN
. 2011: e.T155998A4881392
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Greece
GREECE (Greek : Ελλάδα), officially the HELLENIC REPUBLIC (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), historically also known as HELLAS, is a country in Southern Europe
Europe
, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens
Athens
is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
. Greece
Greece
is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula , it shares land borders with Albania
Albania
to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the north, and Turkey
Turkey
to the northeast
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Spring (hydrology)
A SPRING is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth
Earth
's surface. It is a component of the hydrosphere . CONTENTS* 1 Formation * 1.1 Types * 2 Flow * 2.1 Classification * 3 Water
Water
content * 4 Uses * 4.1 Sacred springs * 5 Notable springs * 6 See also * 7 References * 7.1 Citations * 7.2 Further reading * 8 External links FORMATION A natural spring on Mackinac Island
Mackinac Island
in Michigan
Michigan
A spring may be the result of karst topography where surface water has infiltrated the Earth
Earth
's surface (recharge area), becoming part of the area groundwater . The groundwater then travels through a network of cracks and fissure—openings ranging from intergranular spaces to large caves . The water eventually emerges from below the surface, in the form of a karst spring
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Gytheio
GYTHEIO (Greek : Γύθειο, ), the ancient GYTHIUM or GYTHEION ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Γύθειον), is a town and a former municipality in Laconia
Laconia
, Peloponnese , Greece
Greece
. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality East Mani , of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 197.313 km2. It was the seaport of Sparta
Sparta
, some 40 kilometres (25 miles) north. Gytheio
Gytheio
used to be an important port until it was destroyed in 4th century AD, possibly by an earthquake. Today it is the largest and most important town in Mani
Mani
. It is also the seat of the municipality of East Mani
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IUCN
The INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE (IUCN), officially INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources . It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable." Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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Endemism
ENDEMISM is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution . An alternative term for a species that is endemic is PRECINCTIVE, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Overview * 3 Threats to highly endemistic regions * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word endemic is from New Latin
New Latin
endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people". The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917
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Fauna Europaea
FAUNA EUROPAEA is a database of the scientific names and distribution of all living multicellular European land and fresh-water animals. Its construction was initially funded by the European Union (2000–2004). The project is co-ordinated by the University of Amsterdam . REFERENCES * ^ " Fauna Europaea – all European animal species on the web". PubMed Central
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Gastropod
See text . DIVERSITY 65,000 to 80,000 species The GASTROPODA or GASTROPODS, more commonly known as SNAILS AND SLUGS , are a large taxonomic class within the phylum Mollusca . The class Gastropoda includes snails and slugs of all kinds and all sizes from microscopic to large. There are many thousands of species of sea snails and sea slugs , as well as freshwater snails , freshwater limpets , land snails and land slugs . The class Gastropoda contains a vast total of named species, second only to the insects in overall number. The fossil history of this class goes back to the Late Cambrian . There are 611 families of gastropods known, of which 202 are extinct and appear only in the fossil record
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Mollusc
See text . DIVERSITY 85,000 recognized living species. Cornu aspersum (formerly Helix aspersa) – a common land snail The MOLLUSC (or MOLLUSK /ˈmɒləsk/ ) composes the large phylum MOLLUSCA of invertebrate animals. Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized. Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms . Numerous molluscs also live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats . They are highly diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but also in behaviour and in habitat. The phylum is typically divided into 9 or 10 taxonomic classes , of which two are entirely extinct
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Micromollusc
A MICROMOLLUSK is a shelled mollusk which is extremely small, even at full adult size. The word is usually, but not exclusively, applied to marine mollusks, although in addition, numerous species of land snails and freshwater mollusks also reach adult size at very small dimensions. These tiny mollusks or their tiny shells are easy to overlook, as many of them are not very noticeable to the naked eye, and thus many people are not aware that they even exist. Nonetheless there are large numbers of families and vast numbers of mollusk species , in particular marine gastropods or sea snails , which are minute enough to be considered micromollusks. Considerable numbers of marine gastropod species are only about 5 or 6 mm in adult size; many others are only about 2 or 3 mm in adult size; and a few have adult shells which are as small as one millimeter or even smaller still. Despite their tiny size, many of the shells have a good deal of elaborate sculpture
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The IUCN Red List Of Threatened Species
The IUCN
IUCN
RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES (also known as the IUCN
IUCN
RED LIST or RED DATA LIST), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species . The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit. The IUCN
IUCN
Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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National Center For Biotechnology Information
The NATIONAL CENTER FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY INFORMATION (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
(NIH). The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988 through legislation sponsored by Senator Claude Pepper
Claude Pepper
. The NCBI houses a series of databases relevant to biotechnology and biomedicine and is an important resource for bioinformatics tools and services. Major databases include GenBank
GenBank
for DNA
DNA
sequences and PubMed , a bibliographic database for the biomedical literature. Other databases include the NCBI Epigenomics database. All these databases are available online through the Entrez
Entrez
search engine
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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INaturalist
INATURALIST is a citizen science project and online social network of naturalists , citizen scientists, and biologists built on the concept of mapping and sharing observations of biodiversity across the globe. Observations may be added via the website or from a mobile application . The observations provide valuable open data to a variety of scientific research projects, museums, botanic gardens, parks, and other organizations. Users of iNaturalist have contributed over six million observations since its founding in 2008, and the project has been called "a standard-bearer for natural history mobile applications." CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Participation * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYiNaturalist.org began in 2008 as a UC Berkeley School of Information Master's final project of Nate Agrin, Jessica Kline, and Ken-ichi Ueda. Nate Agrin and Ken-ichi Ueda continued work on the site with Sean McGregor, a web developer
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