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Islam In The Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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USSR (other)
USSR
USSR
most commonly refers to the Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1922–1991). USSR
USSR
may also refer to:The
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Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (US: /ˈɡɔːrbəˌtʃɑːv/,[1] UK: /ˈɡɔːbəˌtʃɒf/; Russian: Михаи́л Серге́евич Горбачёв, IPA: [mʲɪxɐˈil sʲɪrˈɡʲejɪvʲɪtɕ ɡərbɐˈtɕɵf] ( listen); born 2 March 1931)[2] is a Russian and former Soviet politician. He was the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, having been General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
from 1985 until 1991
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Marxism–Leninism
In political science, Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(CPSU), of the Communist International, and of Stalinist political parties.[1][2] The purpose of Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
is the revolutionary development of a bourgeois state into a socialist state, realised through the leadership of a party vanguard, composed of professional revolutionaries from the working class
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One-party State
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections
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Socialist State
A socialist state or socialist republic (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) refers to any state that is constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism. In Western usage, the term "communist state" is often used in reference to single-party socialist states governed by parties adhering to a variant of Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
or Maoism, though these states officially refer to themselves as "socialist states" or states that are in the process of building socialism and do not describe themselves as "communist" or as having achieved communism.[1][2][3] Aside from the "communist states", a number of other states have described their orientation as "socialist" in their constitutions
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Semi-presidential System
A semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state
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Federal Republic
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.[1] At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen". In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government, and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defence, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction
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General Secretary Of The Communist Party Of The Soviet Union
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Генеральный секретарь ЦК КПСС) was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries
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Joseph Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin[note 1] (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian ethnicity. Governing the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953, he served as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1952 and as Premier of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1941 to 1953. Initially heading a collective one-party state government, by 1937 he was the country's de facto dictator. Ideologically a Marxist and a Leninist, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Raised into a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire, as a youth Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
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Vladimir Ivashko
Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko (Russian: Влади́мир Анто́нович Ива́шко; Ukrainian: Володимир Антонович Івашко, Volodymyr Ivashko) (28 October 1932 – 13 November 1994), was a Soviet Ukrainian politician, briefly acting as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) during the period from 24 August 1991 to 29 August 1991. On 24 August Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
resigned, and on 29 August the CPSU was suspended by the Supreme Soviet. Before becoming General Secretary he had been voted Gorbachev's Deputy General Secretary within the Party on 12 July 1990, a newly created position as a result of the 28th Congress of the Communist Party The Communist Party in between Gorbachev's resignation and its suspension was politically impotent
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List Of Heads Of State Of The Soviet Union
The Constitution of the Soviet Union
Constitution of the Soviet Union
recognised the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the earlier Central Executive Committee (CEC) of the Congress of Soviets as the highest organs of state authority in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Under the 1924, 1936 and 1977 Soviet Constitution
1977 Soviet Constitution
these bodies served as the collective head of state of the Soviet Union.[1] The Chairman of these bodies personally performed the largely ceremonial functions assigned to a single head of state[2] but held little real power. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was established in 1922. However, the country's first constitution was adopted in 1924. Before that time, the 1918 Constitution of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
was adopted as the constitution of the USSR
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Mikhail Kalinin
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Russian: Михаи́л Ива́нович Кали́нин; 19 November [O.S. 7 November] 1875 – 3 June 1946), known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych",[1] was a Bolshevik
Bolshevik
revolutionary and a Soviet Politician. He served as head of state of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1919 to 1946. From 1926, he was a member of the Politburo
Politburo
of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The former East-Prussian city Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
after Kalinin
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Premier Of The Soviet Union
The office of Premier of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Глава Правительства СССР) was synonymous with head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Twelve individuals became premier over the time span of the office. Two of the twelve premiers died in office of natural causes (Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin), three resigned (Alexei Kosygin, Nikolai Tikhonov and Ivan Silayev), and three held the offices of party leader and premier simultaneously (Lenin, Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev). The first premier was Lenin, who was inaugurated in 1922 after the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR. Ivan Silayev
Ivan Silayev
spent the shortest time in office at 126 days in 1991
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Soviet People
Soviet people
Soviet people
(Russian: Сове́тский наро́д, tr. Sovétsky naród)[1] or citizens of the USSR (Russian: Гра́ждане СССР, tr. Grázhdane SSSR) was an umbrella demonym for the population of the Soviet Union. Initially used as a nonspecific reference to the Soviet population, it was eventually declared to be a "new historical, social and international unity of people".[citation needed]Contents1 Nationality politics in early Soviet Union 2 Soviet people
Soviet people
as a political concept 3 See also 4 ReferencesNationality politics in early Soviet Union[edit]Pomerki child sanatory in Kharkov. Summer 1950Through the history of the Soviet Union, both doctrine and practice regarding ethnic distinctions within the Soviet population varied over time. Minority national cultures were not completely abolished in the Soviet Union
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Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov,[a] better known by the alias Lenin[b] (/ˈlɛnɪn/;[1] 22 April 1870[2] – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia
Russia
from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia
Russia
and then the wider Soviet Union
Soviet Union
became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, he developed political theories known as Leninism. Born to a wealthy middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin
Lenin
embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's 1887 execution
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