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Irrigation Scheduling
IRRIGATION SCHEDULING is the process used by irrigation system managers to determine the correct frequency and duration of watering
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Neutron Probe
A NEUTRON PROBE is a device used to measure the quantity of water present in soil . A typical neutron probe contains a pellet of americium-241 and beryllium . The alpha particles emitted by the decay of the americium collide with the light beryllium nuclei, producing fast neutrons . When these fast neutrons collide with hydrogen nuclei present in the soil being studied, they lose much of their energy. The detection of slow neutrons returning to the probe allows an estimate of the amount of hydrogen present. Since water contains two atoms of hydrogen per molecule, this therefore gives a measure of soil moisture. Farmers use this to determine how much water is in their fields. SEE ALSO * Frequency domain sensor * Time-domain reflectometer * Neutron detection REFERENCES * Morgenschweiss, G.; Luft, G
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Frequency Domain Sensor
FREQUENCY DOMAIN (FD) sensor is an instrument developed for measuring soil moisture content. The instrument has an oscillating circuit, the sensing part of the sensor is embedded in the soil, and the operating frequency will depend on the value of soil's dielectric constant . There are two types of sensors: * Capacitance probe, or fringe capacitance sensor. Capacitance probes use capacitance to measure the dielectric permittivity of the soil. The volume of water in the total volume of soil most heavily influences the dielectric permittivity of the soil because the dielectric of water (80) is much greater than the other constituents of the soil (mineral soil: 4, organic matter: 4, air: 1)
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Tensiometer (soil Science)
A TENSIOMETER in soil science is a measuring instrument used to determine the matric water potential ( m {displaystyle Psi _{m}} ) (soil moisture tension) in the vadose zone . This device typically consists of a glass or plastic tube with a porous ceramic cup, and is filled with water . The top of the tube has either a built-in vacuum gauge or a rubber cap used with a portable puncture tensiometer instrument, which uses a hypodermic needle to measure the pressure inside the tensiometer. The tensiometer is buried in the soil, and a hand pump is used to pull a partial vacuum. As water is pulled out of the soil by plants and evaporation, the vacuum inside the tube increases. As water is added to the soil, the vacuum inside the tube pulls moisture from the soil and decreases. As the water in tensiometer is considered to be equilibrium with the soil water, the gauge reading of the tensiometer represents the matric potential of the soil
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Rain Sensor
A RAIN SENSOR or rain switch is a switching device activated by rainfall. There are two main applications for rain sensors. The first is a water conservation device connected to an automatic irrigation system that causes the system to shut down in the event of rainfall. The second is a device used to protect the interior of an automobile from rain and to support the automatic mode of windscreen wipers . An additional application in professional satellite communications antennas is to trigger a rain blower on the aperture of the antenna feed, to remove water droplets from the mylar cover that keeps pressurized and dry air inside the wave-guides
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Nonlimiting Water Range
The NON-LIMITING WATER RANGE (NLWR) represents the range of water content in the soil where limitations to plant growth (such as water potential , air-filled porosity , or soil strength) are minimal. John Letey (1985) from UC Riverside introduced the NLWR concept in an attempt to integrate several physical properties associated with plant or root growth to refine the concept of available water capacity . Alvaro Pires da Silva, Bev Kay. and Ed Perfect ( University of Guelph , Ontario) (1994) refined the concept and termed it least limiting water range (LLWR). The upper limit (wet end) of LLWR is determined not only at water content at field capacity (FC), but also the capability of providing adequate aeration for plant roots (usually taken as a minimum air filled porosity of 10%). The upper limit is then defined as: min q {air filled porosity = 0.1, FC}
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Time Domain Reflectometer
A TIME-DOMAIN REFLECTOMETER (TDR) is an electronic instrument that uses time-domain reflectometry to characterize and locate faults in metallic cables (for example, twisted pair wire or coaxial cable ). It can also be used to locate discontinuities in a connector, printed circuit board , or any other electrical path. The equivalent device for optical fiber is an optical time-domain reflectometer . CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Reflection * 1.2 Incident signal * 2 Example traces * 3 Explanation * 4 Usage * 4.1 TDR in level measurement * 4.2 TDR used in anchor cables in dams * 4.3 TDR used in the earth and agricultural sciences * 4.4 TDR in geotechnical usage * 4.5 TDR in semiconductor device analysis * 4.6 TDR in aviation wiring maintenance * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Further reading * 7 External links DESCRIPTIONA TDR measures reflections along a conductor
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Irrigation Scheduling
IRRIGATION SCHEDULING is the process used by irrigation system managers to determine the correct frequency and duration of watering
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Irrigation In Viticulture
IRRIGATION IN VITICULTURE is the process of applying extra water in the cultivation of grapevines . It is considered both controversial and essential to wine production . In the physiology of the grapevine, the amount of available water affects photosynthesis and hence growth, as well as the development of grape berries. While climate and humidity play important roles, a typical grape vine needs 25-35 inches (635-890 millimeters) of water a year, occurring during the spring and summer months of the growing season , to avoid stress. A vine that does not receive the necessary amount of water will have its growth altered in a number of ways; some effects of water stress (particularly, smaller berry size and somewhat higher sugar content) are considered desirable by wine grape growers. In many Old World wine
Old World wine
regions, natural rainfall is considered the only source for water that will still allow the vineyard to maintain its terroir characteristics
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Rainfall
RAIN is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then precipitated —that is, become heavy enough to fall under gravity . Rain
Rain
is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems , as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation . The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as weather fronts . If enough moisture and upward motion is present, precipitation falls from convective clouds (those with strong upward vertical motion) such as cumulonimbus (thunder clouds) which can organize into narrow rainbands
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Lawn
A LAWN is an area of soil-covered land planted with grasses or (rarely) other durable plants such as clover which are maintained at a short height with a lawnmower and used for aesthetic and recreational purposes. Common characteristics of a lawn are that it is composed only of grass species, it is subject to weed and pest control , it is subject to practices aimed at maintaining its green color (e.g., watering), and it is regularly mowed to ensure an acceptable length, although these characteristics are not binding as a definition. Lawns are used around houses, apartments, commercial buildings and offices. Many city parks also have large lawn areas. In recreational contexts, the specialised names TURF, PITCH, FIELD or GREEN may be used, depending on the sport and the continent. The term "lawn", referring to a managed grass space, dates to no earlier than the 16th century
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Surface Runoff
SURFACE RUNOFF (also known as OVERLAND FLOW) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater , meltwater , or other sources flows over the Earth\'s surface . This might occur because soil is saturated to full capacity, because rain arrives more quickly than soil can absorb it, or because impervious areas (roofs and pavement ) send their runoff to surrounding soil that cannot absorb all of it. Surface runoff is a major component of the water cycle . It is the primary agent in soil erosion by water . Runoff that occurs on the ground surface before reaching a channel is also called a nonpoint source . If a nonpoint source contains man-made contaminants, or natural forms of pollution (such as rotting leaves) the runoff is called nonpoint source pollution . A land area which produces runoff that drains to a common point is called a drainage basin
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Topography
TOPOGRAPHY is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth
Earth
and other observable astronomical objects including planets , moons , and asteroids . The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). This field of geoscience and planetary science is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but also natural and artificial features, and even local history and culture . This meaning is less common in the United States
United States
, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. The older sense of topography as the study of place still has currency in Europe
Europe

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Infiltration (hydrology)
INFILTRATION is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil . Infiltration rate in soil science is a measure of the rate at which soil is able to absorb rainfall or irrigation . It is measured in inches per hour or millimeters per hour. The rate decreases as the soil becomes saturated. If the precipitation rate exceeds the infiltration rate, runoff will usually occur unless there is some physical barrier. It is related to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the near-surface soil. The rate of infiltration can be measured using an infiltrometer
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Distribution Uniformity
DISTRIBUTION UNIFORMITY or DU in irrigation is a measure of how uniformly water is applied to the area being watered, expressed as a ratio to avoid confusing it with
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