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Irrigation Scheduling
Irrigation
Irrigation
scheduling is the process used by irrigation system managers to determine the correct frequency and duration of watering. The following factors may be taken into consideration:Precipitation rate of the irrigation equipment - how quickly the water is applied, often expressed in inches or mm per hour. Distribution uniformity of the irrigation system - how uniformly the water is applied, expressed as a percentage, the higher the number, the more uniform. Soil infiltration rate - how quickly the water is absorbed by the soil, the rate of which also decreases as the soil becomes wetter, also often expressed in inches or mm per hour. Slope (topography) of the land being irrigated as this affects how quickly runoff occurs, often expressed as a percentage, i.e
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Irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation
is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation
Irrigation
helps grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation
Irrigation
also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection,[1] suppressing weed growth in grain fields[2] and preventing soil consolidation.[3] In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation
Irrigation
systems are also used for cooling livestock, dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining
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Rainfall
Rain
Rain
is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain
Rain
is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as weather fronts. If enough moisture and upward motion is present, precipitation falls from convective clouds (those with strong upward vertical motion) such as cumulonimbus (thunder clouds) which can organize into narrow rainbands
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Irrigation In Viticulture
Irrigation in viticulture is the process of applying extra water in the cultivation of grapevines. It is considered both controversial and essential to wine production. In the physiology of the grapevine, the amount of available water affects photosynthesis and hence growth, as well as the development of grape berries. While climate and humidity play important roles, a typical grape vine needs 25-35 inches (635-890 millimeters) of water a year, occurring during the spring and summer months of the growing season, to avoid stress.[1] A vine that does not receive the necessary amount of water will have its growth altered in a number of ways; some effects of water stress (particularly, smaller berry size and somewhat higher sugar content) are considered desirable by wine grape growers. In many Old World wine regions, natural rainfall is considered the only source for water that will still allow the vineyard to maintain its terroir characteristics
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Time Domain Reflectometer
A time-domain reflectometer (TDR) is an electronic instrument that uses time-domain reflectometry to characterize and locate faults in metallic cables (for example, twisted pair wire or coaxial cable).[1] It can also be used to locate discontinuities in a connector, printed circuit board, or any other electrical path. The equivalent device for optical fiber is an optical time-domain reflectometer.Contents1 Description1.1 Reflection 1.2 Incident signal2 Example traces 3 Explanation 4 Usage4.1 In level measurement 4.2 Used in anchor cables in dams 4.3 Used in the earth and agricultural sciences 4.4 In geotechnical usage 4.5 In semiconductor device analysis 4.6 In aviation wiring maintenance5 See also 6 References6.1 Further reading7 External linksDescription[edit] A TDR measures reflections along a conductor. In order to measure those reflections, the TDR will transmit an incident signal onto the conductor and listen for its reflections
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Nonlimiting Water Range
The Non-limiting water range (NLWR) represents the range of water content in the soil where limitations to plant growth (such as water potential, air-filled porosity, or soil strength) are minimal. John Letey (1985) from UC Riverside
UC Riverside
introduced the NLWR concept in an attempt to integrate several physical properties associated with plant or root growth to refine the concept of available water capacity. Alvaro Pires da Silva, Bev Kay. and Ed Perfect (University of Guelph, Ontario) (1994) refined the concept and termed it least limiting water range (LLWR). The upper limit (wet end) of LLWR is determined not only at water content at field capacity (FC), but also the capability of providing adequate aeration for plant roots (usually taken as a minimum air filled porosity of 10%)
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Neutron Probe
A neutron probe is a device used to measure the quantity of water present in soil. A typical neutron probe contains a pellet of americium-241 and beryllium. The alpha particles emitted by the decay of the americium collide with the light beryllium nuclei, producing fast neutrons. When these fast neutrons collide with hydrogen nuclei present in the soil being studied, they lose much of their energy. The detection of slow neutrons returning to the probe allows an estimate of the amount of hydrogen present. Since water contains two atoms of hydrogen per molecule, this therefore gives a measure of soil moisture. Farmers use this to determine how much water is in their fields. See also[edit]Frequency domain sensor Time-domain reflectometer Neutron detectionReferences[edit]Morgenschweiss, G.; Luft, G
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Frequency Domain Sensor
Frequency domain (FD) sensor is an instrument developed for measuring soil moisture content. The instrument has an oscillating circuit, the sensing part of the sensor is embedded in the soil, and the operating frequency will depend on the value of soil's dielectric constant. There are two types of sensors:Capacitance probe, or fringe capacitance sensor. Capacitance probes use capacitance to measure the dielectric permittivity of the soil. The volume of water in the total volume of soil most heavily influences the dielectric permittivity of the soil because the dielectric of water (80) is much greater than the other constituents of the soil (mineral soil: 4, organic matter: 4, air: 1)
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Tensiometer (soil Science)
A tensiometer in soil science is a measuring instrument used to determine the matric water potential ( Ψ m displaystyle Psi _ m ) (soil moisture tension) in the vadose zone. This device typically consists of a glass or plastic tube with a porous ceramic cup, and is filled with water. The top of the tube has either a built-in vacuum gauge or a rubber cap used with a portable puncture tensiometer instrument, which uses a hypodermic needle to measure the pressure inside the tensiometer. The tensiometer is buried in the soil, and a hand pump is used to pull a partial vacuum. As water is pulled out of the soil by plants and evaporation, the vacuum inside the tube increases. As water is added to the soil, the vacuum inside the tube pulls moisture from the soil and decreases
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Rain Sensor
A rain sensor or rain switch is a switching device activated by rainfall. There are two main applications for rain sensors. The first is a water conservation device connected to an automatic irrigation system that causes the system to shut down in the event of rainfall. The second is a device used to protect the interior of an automobile from rain and to support the automatic mode of windscreen wipers
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Lawn
A lawn is an area of soil-covered land planted with grasses and other durable plants such as clover which are maintained at a short height with a lawnmower and used for aesthetic and recreational purposes. Common characteristics of a lawn are that it is composed only of grass species, it is subject to weed and pest control, it is subject to practices aimed at maintaining its green color (e.g., watering), and it is regularly mowed to ensure an acceptable length,[1] although these characteristics are not binding as a definition. Lawns are used around houses, apartments, commercial buildings and offices. Many city parks also have large lawn areas. In recreational contexts, the specialised names turf, pitch, field or green may be used, depending on the sport and the continent. The term "lawn", referring to a managed grass space, dates to no earlier than the 16th century
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Distribution Uniformity
Distribution Uniformity or DU in irrigation is a measure of how uniformly water is applied to the area being watered, expressed as a ratio to avoid confusing it with efficiency.[1] The distribution uniformity is often calculated when performing an irrigation audit. The DU should not be confused with the coefficient of uniformity (CU) which is often preferred for describing the performance of overhead pressurized systems. The most common measure of DU is the Low Quarter DU expressed as DUlq, which is a measure of the average of the lowest quarter of samples, divided by the average of all samples. The higher the DUlq, the better the coverage of the area measured. If all samples are equal, the DUlq is 1.0. There is no universal value of DUlq for satisfactory system performance. A value of >.80 is considered above average. Distribution uniformity may be helpful as a starting point for irrigation scheduling
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Vegetable
In everyday usage, vegetables are certain parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a savory meal. Originally, the traditional term (still commonly used in biology) included the flowers, fruit, stems, leaves, roots, tubers, bark, seeds, and all other plant matter, although modern-day culinary usage of the term vegetable may exclude food derived from plants such as fruits, nuts, and cereal grains, but include seeds such as pulses; the term vegetable is somewhat arbitrary, and can be largely defined through culinary and cultural tradition. Originally, vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world, probably during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types
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Moisture Stress
Moisture stress occurs when the water in a plant's cells is reduced to less than normal levels. This can occur because of a lack of water in the plant's root zone, higher rates of transpiration than the rate of moisture uptake by the roots, for example, because of an inability to absorb water due to a high salt content in the soil water or loss of roots due to transplantation
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Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
(ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere. Evaporation
Evaporation
accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies. Transpiration
Transpiration
accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves. Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
is an important part of the water cycle. An element (such as a tree) that contributes to evapotranspiration can be called an evapotranspirator.[1] Potential evapotranspiration (PET), is a representation of the environmental demand for evapotranspiration and represents the evapotranspiration rate of a short green crop (grass), completely shading the ground, of uniform height and with adequate water status in the soil profile
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