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Irreligion
IRRELIGION (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion . Irreligion may include some forms of theism , depending on the religious context it is defined against; for example, in 18th-century Europe, the epitome of irreligion was deism . According to the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
's 2012 global study of 230 countries and territories, only 16% of the world's population is not affiliated with a religion, while 84% are affiliated. . According to their projections, the non-religious, though temporarily increasing, will ultimately decline significantly by 2050 because of lower reproductive rates and ageing
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Irreligious (album)
IRRELIGIOUS is the second studio album by Portuguese gothic metal band, Moonspell , released 1996. It features some of the best-known songs of the band, such as "Opium ", "Ruin & Misery", "Awake!" and "Full Moon Madness". The latter is usually the closing song during almost every Moonspell concert, which over time has become a characteristic of their concerts. Before the song begins, Fernando Ribeiro often makes the sign of the circle (symbolizing Moon) over the crowd. The 3rd track "Awake!" features a recording of Aleister Crowley reading his poem 'The Poet'. CONTENTS * 1 Track listing * 2 Personnel * 2.1 Guest musicians * 2.2 Production * 3 Opium video * 4 References TRACK LISTING NO. TITLE LENGTH 1. "Perverse..
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Transtheism
TRANSTHEISM is a term coined by either philosopher Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
or Indologist Heinrich Zimmer
Heinrich Zimmer
referring to a system of thought or religious philosophy which is neither theistic , nor atheistic , but is beyond them. Zimmer applies the term to the theological system of Jainism
Jainism
, which is theistic in the limited sense that the gods exist, but become irrelevant as they are transcended by moksha (that is, a system which is not non-theistic , but in which the gods are not the highest spiritual instance). Zimmer (1953, p. 182) uses the term to describe the position of the Tirthankaras having passed "beyond the godly governors of the natural order". The term has more recently also been applied to Buddhism
Buddhism
, Advaita Vedanta and the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement. Nathan Katz in Buddhist and Western Philosophy (1981, p
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List Of Deists
This is a partial LIST OF PEOPLE who have been categorized as DEISTS , the belief in a deity based on natural religion only, or belief in religious truths discovered by people through a process of reasoning, independent of any revelation through scripture or prophets . They have been selected for their influence on Deism, or for their fame in other areas. * Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
(1809–1865), sixteenth president of the United States of America. He never joined any church and has been described as a " Christian
Christian
deist". As a young man, he was religiously skeptical and sometimes ridiculed revivalists. During his early years, Lincoln enjoyed reading the works of deists such as Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
and Voltaire . He drafted a pamphlet incorporating such ideas but did not publish it
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Secular Buddhism
SECULAR BUDDHISM—sometimes also referred to as AGNOSTIC BUDDHISM, BUDDHIST AGNOSTICISM, IGNOSTIC BUDDHISM, ATHEISTIC BUDDHISM, PRAGMATIC BUDDHISM, BUDDHIST ATHEISM, or BUDDHIST SECULARISM—is a broad term for an emerging form of Buddhism
Buddhism
and secular spirituality that is based on humanist , skeptical , and/or agnostic values, as well as pragmatism and (often) naturalism , rather than religious (or more specifically supernatural or paranormal ) beliefs. Secular Buddhists interpret the teachings of the Buddha
Buddha
and the Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
in a rationalist and often evidentialist manner, considering the historical and cultural contexts of the times in which the Buddha
Buddha
lived and the various suttas , sutras and tantras were written
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List Of Pantheists
Pantheism
Pantheism
is the belief that the universe (or nature as the totality of everything) is identical with divinity , or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent God. Pantheists thus do not believe in a distinct personal or anthropomorphic god. Some Eastern religions are considered to be pantheistic. PANTHEISTS * Vyasa
Vyasa
(3rd millennium BCE) writer of Mahabharata
Mahabharata
. * Nammalvar
Nammalvar
(3059 BCE), one of the twelve Alvars
Alvars
. * Lao Tzu
Lao Tzu
(604 BCE–?), name traditionally given to the writer of the Tao Te Ching
Tao Te Ching
, and considered the founder of philosophical Taoism . * Heraclitus
Heraclitus
(c. 535 BCE–c
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Naturalism (philosophy)
In philosophy , NATURALISM is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual ) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws. "Naturalism can intuitively be separated into an ontological and a methodological component." "Ontological" refers to the philosophical study of the nature of reality. Some philosophers equate naturalism with materialism . For example, philosopher Paul Kurtz
Paul Kurtz
argues that nature is best accounted for by reference to material principles. These principles include mass , energy , and other physical and chemical properties accepted by the scientific community . Further, this sense of naturalism holds that spirits , deities , and ghosts are not real and that there is no "purpose " in nature
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Anti-clericalism
ANTI-CLERICALISM is opposition to religious authority , typically in social or political matters. Historical anti-clericalism has mainly been opposed to the influence of Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
. Anti-clericalism is related to secularism , which seeks to remove the church from all aspects of public and political life, and its involvement in the everyday life of the citizen. Anarchist and Communist movements are anti-religion and anti-clerical, but not all anti-clericals are irreligious or anti-religion . Some have opposed clergy on the basis of moral corruption, institutional issues and/or disagreements in religious interpretation, such as during the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
. Anti-clericalism
Anti-clericalism
became extremely violent during the French Revolution because revolutionaries believed the church had played a pivotal role in the systems of oppression which led to it
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Secularity
SECULARITY (adjective form SECULAR, from Latin
Latin
saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years ) is the state of being separate from religion , or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion . Historically, the word "secular" was not related or linked to religion, but was a freestanding term in Latin
Latin
which would relate to any mundane endeavor. The idea of a dichotomy between religion and the secular originated in the 18th century European Enlightenment . Furthermore, since "religion" and "secular" are both Western concepts that were formed under the influence of Christian theology, other cultures do not necessarily have words or concepts that resemble or are equivalent to them
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Christian Atheism
CHRISTIAN ATHEISM is a form of Cultural Christianity
Christianity
and a system of ethics which draws its beliefs and practices from the life and teachings of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
, as recorded in the Gospels of the New Testament and other sources, while rejecting the supernatural claims of Christianity
Christianity
at large. Christian Atheism
Atheism
takes many forms - some Christian Atheists take a theological position, in which the belief in the transcendent or interventionist God is rejected or absent in favor of finding God totally in the world ( Thomas J. J. Altizer ), while others follow Jesus
Jesus
in a godless world (William Hamilton ). Hamilton's Christian atheism
Christian atheism
is similar to Jesuism
Jesuism

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Argument From Inconsistent Revelations
The ARGUMENT FROM INCONSISTENT REVELATIONS, also known as the AVOIDING THE WRONG HELL PROBLEM, is an argument against the existence of God
God
. It asserts that it is unlikely that God
God
exists because many theologians and faithful adherents have produced conflicting and mutually exclusive revelations . The argument states that since a person not privy to revelation must either accept it or reject it based solely upon the authority of its proponent, and there is no way for a mere mortal to resolve these conflicting claims by investigation, it is prudent to reserve one\'s judgment . It is also argued that it is difficult to accept the existence of any one God
God
without personal revelation. Most arguments for the existence of God
God
are not specific to any one religion and could be applied to many religions with near equal validity
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Atheism In Hinduism
VEDANTA * Advaita * Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
* Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta <
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Flying Spaghetti Monster
The FLYING SPAGHETTI MONSTER (FSM) is the deity of the CHURCH OF THE FLYING SPAGHETTI MONSTER, or PASTAFARIANISM. Pastafarianism (a portmanteau of pasta and Rastafarianism ) is a social movement that promotes a light-hearted view of religion and opposes the teaching of intelligent design and creationism in public schools. According to adherents, Pastafarianism is a "real, legitimate religion, as much as any other". It is legally recognized as a religion in the Netherlands and New Zealand
New Zealand
– where Pastafarian representatives have been authorized to celebrate weddings and where the first legally recognized Pastafarian wedding was performed in April 2016. However, in the United States, a federal judge has ruled that the "Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster" is not a real religion
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Invisible Pink Unicorn
The INVISIBLE PINK UNICORN (IPU) is the goddess of a parody religion used to satirize theistic beliefs, taking the form of a unicorn that is paradoxically both invisible and pink . She is a rhetorical illustration used by atheists and other religious skeptics as a contemporary version of Russell\'s teapot , sometimes mentioned in conjunction with the Flying Spaghetti Monster . The IPU is used to argue that supernatural beliefs are arbitrary by, for example, replacing the word God
God
in any theistic statement with Invisible Pink
Pink
Unicorn. The mutually exclusive attributes of pinkness and invisibility, coupled with the inability to disprove the IPU's existence, satirize properties that some theists attribute to a theistic deity
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Religious Naturalism
RELIGIOUS NATURALISM (RN) combines a naturalist worldview with perceptions and values commonly associated with religions. In this, “religious” is understood in general terms, separate from established traditions, in designating feelings and concerns (e.g. gratitude, wonder, humility, compassion) that are often described as spiritual or religious. Naturalism refers to a view that the natural world is all we have substantiated reason to believe exists, and there is no substantiated reason to believe that anything else, including deities, exists or may act in ways that are independent of the natural order. Areas of inquiry include attempts to understand the natural world and the spiritual and moral implications of naturalist views. Understanding is based in knowledge obtained through scientific inquiry and insights from the humanities and the arts. Religious naturalists use these perspectives in responding to personal and social challenges (e.g
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