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Iroha
The Iroha (いろは) is a Japanese poem, probably written in the Heian era (794–1179). Originally the poem was attributed to the founder of the Shingon
Shingon
Esoteric sect of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Japan, Kūkai, but more modern research has found the date of composition to be later in the Heian Period.[1] The first record of its existence dates from 1079. It is famous because it is a perfect pangram, containing each character of the Japanese syllabary exactly once. Because of this, it is also used as an ordering for the syllabary, in the same way as the A, B, C, D... sequence of the Latin alphabet.Contents1 Text 2 Usage2.1 Current uses3 Origin 4 See also4.1 Other languages5 Notes5.1 ReferencesText[edit] The first appearance of the Iroha, in Konkōmyōsaishōōkyō Ongi (金光明最勝王経音義, 'Readings of Golden Light Sutra') was in seven lines: six with seven morae each, and one with five
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Renku
Renku (連句, "linked verses"), or haikai no renga (俳諧の連歌, "comic linked verse"),[1] is a Japanese form of popular collaborative linked verse poetry. It is a development of the older Japanese poetic tradition of ushin renga, or orthodox collaborative linked verse. At renku gatherings participating poets take turns providing alternating verses of 17 and 14 morae. Initially haikai no renga distinguished itself through vulgarity and coarseness of wit, before growing into a legitimate artistic tradition, and eventually giving birth to the haiku form of Japanese poetry
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Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Japanese Language
Japanese (日本語, Nihongo, [ɲihoŋɡo] or [ɲihoŋŋo] ( listen)) is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period
Heian period
(794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese
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Musical Note
In music, a note is the pitch and duration of a sound, and also its representation in musical notation (♪, ♩). A note can also represent a pitch class. Notes are the building blocks of much written music: discretizations of musical phenomena that facilitate performance, comprehension, and analysis.[1] The term note can be used in both generic and specific senses: one might say either "the piece 'Happy Birthday to You' begins with two notes having the same pitch", or "the piece begins with two repetitions of the same note". In the former case, one uses note to refer to a specific musical event; in the latter, one uses the term to refer to a class of events sharing the same pitch. (See also: Key signature names and translations.)The note A or LaNames of some notes without accidentalsTwo notes with fundamental frequencies in a ratio equal to any integer power of two (e.g., half, twice, or four times) are perceived as very similar
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Octave
In music, an octave (Latin: octavus: eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency. It is defined by ANSI[2] as the unit of frequency level when the base of the logarithm is two. The octave relationship is a natural phenomenon that has been referred to as the "basic miracle of music", the use of which is "common in most musical systems".[3] The most important musical scales are typically written using eight notes, and the interval between the first and last notes is an octave. For example, the C major scale is typically written C D E F G A B C, the initial and final Cs being an octave apart
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Japanese National Railways
Japanese National Railways
Japanese National Railways
(日本国有鉄道, Nihon Kokuyū Tetsudō), abbreviated Kokutetsu (国鉄) or "JNR", was the business entity that operated Japan's national railway network from 1949 to 1987.Contents1 Network1.1 Railways 1.2 Buses 1.3 Ships2 Unions 3 History3.1 JNR dismissal lawsuit 3.2 Baseball team4 Accidents and criminal incidents4.1 Accidents 4.2 Criminal incidents5 See also 6 References 7 External linksNetwork[edit] Railways[edit] As of June 1, 1949, the date of establishment of JNR, it operated 19,756.8 km (12,276.3 mi) of narrow gauge (1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)) railways in all 46 prefectures of Japan (Okinawa, the 47th prefecture, returned to the Japanese administration in 1972 but no JNR line existed in Okinawa)
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Japan Railways Group
  Hokkaido
Hokkaido
  East   Central   West   Shikoku
Shikoku
  Kyushu (JR Freight, JRTT, JR System are omitted)The Japan Railways Group, more commonly known as JR Group (JRグループ, Jeiāru Gurūpu), consists of seven for-profit companies that took over most of the assets and operations of the government-owned Japanese National Railways
Japanese National Railways
on April 1, 1987. Most of the liability of the JNR was assumed by the JNR Settlement Corporation. Further information: Private railway § Japan The JR Group
JR Group
lies at the heart of Japan's railway network, operating a large proportion of intercity rail service (including the Shinkansen high-speed rail lines) and commuter rail service
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Nikko, Tochigi
Nikkō (日光市, Nikkō-shi) is a city located in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. As of May 2015, the city had an estimated population of 84,197, and a population density of 58.1 persons per km2. Its total area is 1,449.83 km2. It is a popular destination for Japanese and international tourists. Attractions include the mausoleum of shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
(Nikkō Tōshō-gū) and that of his grandson Iemitsu (Iemitsu-byō Taiyū-in), and the Futarasan Shrine, which dates to the year 767. There are also many famous hot springs (onsen) in the area
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Lake Chūzenji
Lake Chūzenji (中禅寺湖, Chūzenji-ko) is a scenic lake in Nikkō National Park in the city of Nikkō, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. It was created 20,000 years ago when Mount Nantai (2484 m) erupted and blocked the river. The lake has a surface area of 11.62 km² and a circumference of 25 km. Its elevation at the surface is 1,269 m (4,124 ft), and the water reaches a depth of 163 m (508 ft). The Yukawa is the principal source of water. It drains through the Kegon Falls. Chuzenji Lake was discovered in 782 by a priest named Shōdō when his group succeeded in climbing Mt. Nantai. Considered sacred, the mountain was closed to women, horses, and cows until 1872. In the middle of the Meiji period and early Showa period, many European embassies built vacation houses around the lake. The former Italian villa has been renewed and is now open to visitors. Other sites around the lake include Futara Shrine built in 790, Chuzenji Temple, and Kegon Falls
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Nirvana Sutra
The Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra
Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra
(traditional Chinese: 大般涅槃經, Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་ཀྱི་མདོ་[1]) or Nirvana
Nirvana
Sutra is a Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit text which is one of the Tathāgatagarbha sūtras
Tathāgatagarbha sūtras
of Mahāyāna Buddhism.[note 1] It originated in the first century CE in Andhra, India, and was substantially expanded by the Chinese translator Dharmakṣema in the fifth century CE
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Imperial Japanese Navy Submarines
Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
submarines originated with the purchase of five Holland type submarines from the United States
United States
in 1904. Japanese submarine forces progressively built up strength and expertise, becoming by the beginning of World War II
World War II
one of the world's most varied and powerful submarine fleets.Contents1 Origins 2 World War II2.1 Submarine
Submarine
aircraft carriers 2.2 Yanagi missions 2.3 1st Class submarines2.3.1 Type KD1 (I-51) 2.3.2 Type KD2 (I-152) 2.3.3 Type KD3a (4 units) 2.3.4 Type KD3b (3 units) 2.3.5 Type KD4 (3 units) 2.3.6 Type KD5 (3 units) 2.3.7 Type KD6a (6 units) 2.3.8 Type KD6b (2 units) 2.3.9 Type KD7 (10 units) 2.3.10 Type J1 (I-1, I-2, I-3, I-4) 2.3.11 Type J1 Mod
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Impermanence
Impermanence, also called Anicca or Anitya,[1] is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism.[2][3][4] The doctrine asserts that all of conditioned existence, without exception, is "transient, evanescent, inconstant".[2] All temporal things, whether material or mental, are compounded objects in a continuous change of condition, subject to decline and destruction.[2][5] The concept of impermanence is also found in various schools of Hinduism and Jainism.[6][7] Anicca or impermanence is understood in Buddhism
Buddhism
as the first of three marks of existence, the other two being dukkha (suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness) and anatta (non-self, non-soul, no essence).[4][3][8] All physical and mental events, states Buddhism, come into being and dissolve.[9] Human life embodies this flux in the aging process, the cycle of repeated birth and death (Samsara), nothing lasts, and everything decays
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Nirvana
Nirvāṇa (/nɪərˈvɑːnə/ neer-VAH-nə, /-ˈvænə/ -VAN-ə, /nər-/ nər-;[1] Sanskrit: निर्वाण nirvāṇa [nirʋaːɳə]; Pali: निब्बान nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.[2] The term "nirvana" is most commonly associated with Buddhism, and represents its ultimate state of soteriological release and liberation from rebirths in saṃsāra.[3][web 1][4] In Indian religions, nirvana is synonymous with moksha and mukti.[note 1] All Indian religions
Indian religions
assert it to be a state of perfect
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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