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Irish Australian
Irish Australians
Australians
(Irish: Gael-Astrálaigh) are an ethnic group of Australian
Australian
citizens of Irish descent, which include immigrants from and descendants whose ancestry originates from the island of Ireland. Irish Australians
Australians
have played a considerable part in the history of Australia. They came to Australia from the late eighteenth century on as convicts or settlers, and contributed largely to Australia's development in many different areas. In the late 19th century Irish Australians
Australians
constituted up to a third of the country's population.[4] There is no definitive figure of the total number of Australians
Australians
with an Irish background
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County Clare
County Clare
County Clare
(Irish: Contae an Chláir) is a county in Ireland, in the Mid-West Region and the province of Munster, bordered on the West by the Atlantic Ocean. There is debate if it should be historically considered a part of Connacht. Clare County Council
Clare County Council
is the local authority
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Republic Of Ireland
Ireland
Ireland
(/ˈaɪərlənd/ ( listen); Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen)), also known as the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
(Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe
Europe
occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern part of the island, and whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's 4.75 million inhabitants. The state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint George's Channel
Saint George's Channel
to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east
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1804 In Australia
←1803 1802 18011804 in Australia→1805 1806 1807Decades:1780s 1790s 1800s 1810s 1820sSee also:Other events of 1804Timeline of Australian historyThe following lists events that happened during 1804
1804
in Australia.Contents1 Incumbents1.1 Governors2 Events 3 Exploration and settlement 4 Births 5 Deaths 6 ReferencesIncumbents[edit] Governors[edit] Governors of the Australian colonies:Governor of New South Wales – Captain Philip King Lieutenant-Governor of Southern Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
– David Collins Lieutenant-Governor of Northern Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
– William PatersonEvents[edit]4 March – The Castle Hill convict rebellion, also known as the Battle of Vinegar Hill, takes place: 200 convicts, mostly Irish, rebel
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Castle Hill Convict Rebellion
Total: 97[1]67 armed civilians 1 mounted trooper 29 military personnelCasualties and losses15 dead 9 executed 23 exiled NoneThe Castle Hill rebellion of 1804 was a rebellion by convicts against colonial authority in the Castle Hill area of the British colony of New South Wales. The rebellion culminated in a battle fought between convicts and the colonial forces of Australia
Australia
on 5 March 1804 at Rouse Hill, dubbed the Second Battle of Vinegar Hill
Battle of Vinegar Hill
after the first Battle of Vinegar Hill which had taken place in 1798 in Ireland
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Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
(/ˈnɔːrfək/ ( listen); Norfuk: Norf'k Ailen[8]) is a small island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, 1,412 kilometres (877 mi) directly east of mainland Australia's Evans Head, and about 900 kilometres (560 mi) from Lord Howe Island. Together with two neighbouring islands, it forms one of the Commonwealth of Australia's external territories. At the 2016 Australian census, it has 1,748 inhabitants living on a total area of about 35 km2 (14 sq mi).[7] Its capital is Kingston. Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
was first settled by East Polynesians
Polynesians
but was long unpopulated when it was eventually also settled by Great Britain as part of its settlement of Australia
Australia
from 1788
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Fenian
Fenian
Fenian
(/ˈfiːniən/) was an umbrella term for the Fenian
Fenian
Brotherhood and Irish Republican Brotherhood
Irish Republican Brotherhood
(IRB), fraternal organisations dedicated to the establishment of an independent Irish Republic
Irish Republic
in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The term Fenian
Fenian
is still used today, in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and less so in Scotland, where its original meaning has widened to include all supporters of anything Irish and it can include an insult to regard people from the south of Ireland and tri-colours supporters
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Catalpa Rescue
The Catalpa rescue
Catalpa rescue
was the escape, on 17–19 April 1876, of six Irish Fenian
Fenian
prisoners from what was then the British penal colony of Western Australia.Contents1 Fenians and plans to escape 2 Escape and pursuit 3 Aftermath 4 Memorials 5 Exhibition 6 In song 7 Catalpa escape legacy 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 Video and mediaFenians and plans to escape[edit]John DevoyThe main cellblock of Fremantle PrisonFrom 1865 to 1867, British authorities rounded up supporters of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish independence movement, and transported sixty-two of them to the penal colony of Western Australia. They were convicted of crimes ranging from treason-felony to outright rebellion. Sixteen were soldiers who were court martialed for failing to report or stop the treason and mutinous acts of the others
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Rockingham, Western Australia
Rockingham is a city and primary centre in Western Australia south-west of the Perth
Perth
city centre and south of Fremantle. It has a beachside location at Mangles Bay, the southern extremity of Cockburn Sound. To its north stretches the maritime and resource-industry installations of Kwinana and Henderson. Offshore to the north-west is Australia's largest naval fleet and submarine base, Garden Island, connected to the mainland by an all-weather causeway
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Dominion
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.[1][2] They included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa, and the Irish Free State, and then from the late 1940s also India, Pakistan, and Ceylon
Ceylon
(now Sri Lanka)
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Irish Free State
The Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(Irish: Saorstát Éireann pronounced [sˠiːɾˠsˠˈt̪ˠaːt̪ˠ ˈeːɾʲən̪ˠ]; 6 December 1922 – 29 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty
Anglo-Irish Treaty
of December 1921. That treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence
between the forces of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, the Irish Republican Army (IRA), and British Crown forces. The Free State was established as a Dominion
Dominion
of the British Commonwealth of Nations. It comprised 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland. Northern Ireland, which comprised the remaining six counties, exercised its right under the Treaty to opt out of the new state
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British Subject
The term British subject has had a number of different legal meanings over time. Currently the term 'British subject' refers, in British nationality law, to a limited class of different people defined by Part IV of the British Nationality Act 1981. Under that Act, two groups of people became "British subjects"; the first were people from the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
born before 1949 who already claimed subject status, and the second covered a number of people who had previously been considered "British subjects without citizenship", and were not considered citizens of any other country. This second group were predominantly residents of colonies which had become independent, but who had not become citizens of the new country
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Ten Pound Poms
Ten Pound Poms
Ten Pound Poms
(or Ten Pound tourists) is a colloquial term used in Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
to describe British citizens who migrated to Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
after the Second World War. The Government of Australia
Australia
initiated the Assisted Passage Migration Scheme in 1945,[1] and the Government of New Zealand
New Zealand
initiated a similar scheme in July 1947
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Young Ireland
Young Ireland
Young Ireland
(Irish: Éire Óg, IPA: [ˈeːɾʲə ˈoːɡ]) was a political, cultural and social movement of the mid-19th century. It began as a tendency within Daniel O'Connell's Repeal Association, associated with The Nation newspaper, but eventually split to found the Irish Confederation in 1847. Young Ireland
Young Ireland
led changes in Irish nationalism, including an abortive rebellion known as the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848. Many of the rebellion's leaders were tried for sedition and sentenced to penal transportation to Van Diemen's Land. From its beginnings in the late 1830s, Young Ireland grew in influence and inspired following generations of Irish nationalists
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Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Ireland
(Irish: Tuaisceart Éireann [ˈt̪ˠuəʃcəɾˠt̪ˠ ˈeːɾʲən̪ˠ] ( listen);[8] Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the north-east of the island of Ireland,[9][10] variously described as a country, province or region.[11][12][13] Northern Ireland
Ireland
shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863,[4] constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population
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Bushranger
Bushrangers were originally escaped convicts in the early years of the British settlement of Australia who had the survival skills necessary to use the Australian bush as a refuge to hide from the authorities. By the 1820s, the term "bushranger" had evolved to refer to those who abandoned social rights and privileges to take up "robbery under arms" as a way of life, using the bush as their base. Bushranging thrived during the gold rush years of the 1850s and 1860s when the likes of Ben Hall, Frank Gardiner
Frank Gardiner
and John Gilbert led notorious gangs in the country districts of New South Wales. These "Wild Colonial Boys", mostly Australian-born sons of convicts, were roughly analogous to British "highwaymen" and outlaws of the American Old West, and their crimes typically included robbing small-town banks and coach services
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