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Iranian Religions
Iranian religions are religions which originated in Greater Iran.Contents1 Antiquity 2 Medieval period 3 Modern 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksAntiquity[edit] Proto-Indo-Iranian religion
Proto-Indo-Iranian religion
or Proto-Iranic religion:[1] The various beliefs and practices from which the later indigenous religion of the Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
evolved. This religion also influenced the development of the Indian religions. Zoroastrianism: The present-day umbrella term for the indigenous native beliefs and practices of the Iranian peoples. While present-day Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
is monolithic, a continuation of the elite form of Sassanid times, in antiquity it had several variants or denominations, differing slightly by location, ethnic affiliation and historical period
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Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
Judaism
(also known as Liberal Judaism
Judaism
or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai. A liberal strand of Judaism, it is characterized by a lesser stress on ritual and personal observance, regarding Jewish Law as non-binding and the individual Jew as autonomous, and openness to external influences and progressive values
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Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
(/bəˈhɑːʊˌlɑː/; Arabic: بهاء الله‎, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (Persian: میرزا حسین‌علی نوری‎), was the founder of the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Faith. He claimed to be the prophetic fulfilment of Bábism, a 19th-century outgrowth of Shaykhism,[1] and, in a broader sense to be a Manifestation of God. He also claimed he was the fulfillment of the eschatological expectations of Islam, Christianity, and other major religions.[2] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
became a follower of the Báb
Báb
in Persia
Persia
in 1845
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Sufism
Sufism
Sufism
or Taṣawwuf[1] (Arabic: الْتَّصَوُّف; personal noun: صُوفِيّ ṣūfiyy/ṣūfī, مُتَصَوّف mutaṣawwuf), which is often defined as " Islamic
Islamic
mysticism",[2] "the inward dimension of Islam",[3][4] or "the phenomenon of mysticis
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Babak Khorramdin
Bābak Khorramdin (Formally known as "Pāpak" meaning "Young Father") (Persian: بابک خرمدین‎, alternative spelling: Pāpak Khorramdin; 795, according to some other sources 798— January 838[3]) was one of the main Persian[4][5][6][7][8][9] revolutionary leaders of the Iranian[10] Khorram-Dinān[11] ("Those of the joyous religion"), which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate. Khorramdin appears to be a compound analogous to dorustdin "orthodoxy" and Behdin "Good Religion" (Zoroastrianism),[2] and are considered an offshoot of neo-Mazdakism.[12] Babak's Iranianizing[13] rebellion, from its base in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in northwestern Iran,[14] called for a return of the political glories of the Iranian[15] past. The Khorramdin rebellion of Babak spread to the Western and Central parts of Iran
Iran
and lasted more than twenty years before it was defeated when Babak was betrayed
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Behafarid
Behāfarīd (Middle Persian: Weh-āfrīd, Persian: به‌آفرید‎, also spelled Bihāfarīd) was an 8th-century Persian Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
heresiarch[1] who started a religious peasant revolt with elements from Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
and Islam. He believed in Zoroaster and upheld all Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
institutions. His followers prayed seven times a day facing the sun, prohibited intoxicants, and kept their hair long and disallowed sacrifices of cattle except when they were decrepit.[2] His revolt was quelled by the Abbasid
Abbasid
general Abu Muslim, and he was executed by hanging. His followers, however, believed that he would descend again
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Ætsæg Din
Uatsdin (Ossetian: Уацдин), otherwise spelled Watsdin, also known as Assdin (Ассдин, "Ese-Faith"), or by the extended name Ætsæg Din (Æцæг Дин, literally "True Faith"; the same meaning of "Uatsdin", which is a word compound),[1] and among Russians as Assianism (Russian: Ассианство, Assianstvo; alternative rendition of "Assdin"), is the Scythian religion practised primarily by the Ossetians (an Eastern Iranic, Alan-Scythian ethnic group inhabiting a homeland in the Caucasus that is split nowadays between two states: the republic of North Ossetia–Alania within Russia, and the neighbouring state of South Ossetia). This religion has experienced an organised revival since the 1980s.[2] In the Ossetian case, certain traditions of folk religion had survived with unbroken continuity, and were revived in rural areas
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Ethnic Religion
In religious studies, an ethnic religion (or indigenous religion) is a religion associated with a particular ethnic group. Ethnic religions are often distinguished from religions which claim to not be limited in ethnic or national scope, such as Christianity
Christianity
or Islam.[1] Ethnic religions are not only independent religions. Some localised denominations of global religions are practised solely by certain ethnic groups
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Ossetian Mythology
The mythology of the Ossetian people of the Caucasus
Caucasus
region contains several gods and supernatural beings. The religion itself is believed to be of Sarmatian
Sarmatian
origin, but contains many later elements from Christianity, and the Ossetian gods are often identified with Christian saints. The gods play a role in the famous stories about a race of semi-divine heroes called the Narts.Contents1 Deities 2 See also 3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksDeities[edit]Huycau or Xucau (Ossetian: Хуыцау). The chief of the gods. Uastyrdzhi
Uastyrdzhi
(Уастырджи; "Saint George"). The patron of males and travellers, and the guarantor of oaths. Main patron of North Ossetia–Alania. Uacilla (Уацилла; "Saint Elijah"). Also spelled Watsilla. God of rain, thunder and lightning
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Pir Roshan
Pīr Bāyazīd Khān (Pashto: پير بايزيد خان‎), more commonly known as Pīr Rōshān or Pīr Rōkhān (Pashto: پیر روښان‎, "the enlightened Pir"; Persian: پیر روشن‎‎) (1525 – 1581/1585),[2] was an Afghan or Pashtun warrior-poet, Sufi master, and freedom fighter from the Ormur tribe of Waziristan. Pir Roshan wrote mostly in Pashto, but also in Persian and Arabic, while his first language was Ormuri. He is known for founding the Roshaniyya movement, which gained many followers in the 16th-century Pashtunistan region. Pir Roshan also wrote Khayr al-Bayān, the oldest known book in Pashto
Pashto
language, to present his philosophical ideas. Pir Roshan assembled Pashtun armies to fight against the Mughal emperor Akbar
Akbar
in response to Akbar's continuous military agitations, and to counter Akbar's Din-i Ilahi
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Dabestan-e Mazaheb
The Dabestān-e Mazāheb, also transliterated as Dabistān-i Mazāhib (Persian: دبستان مذاهب‎) "School of Religions", is an examination and comparison of South Asian religions and sects of the mid-17th century. The work is written in Persian, probably having been composed in about 1655 CE. The Dabistan-e Madahib is best known for its chapter on the Dīn-i Ilāhī, the syncretic religion propounded by the Mughal emperor Jalāl ud-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar
Akbar
(" Akbar
Akbar
the Great") after 1581 and is possibly the most reliable account of the Ibādat Khāna discussions that led up to this. This work was first printed by Nazar Ashraf in a very accurate edition in movable type at Calcutta in 1809 (an offset reprint of this edition was published by Ali Asghar Mustafawi from Teheran in 1982)
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Richard Foltz
Richard Foltz
Richard Foltz
(born 1961) is a Canadian
Canadian
scholar of American origin. He is a specialist in the history of Iran and the history of religions, particularly Islam
Islam
and Zoroastrianism. He has also been active in the areas of environmental ethics and animal rights.Contents1 Biography 2 Scholarly contributions 3 Books 4 Popular culture 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] A professor in the Department of Religions and Cultures at Concordia University in Montréal, Canada, Foltz holds a Ph.D. in Middle Eastern History from Harvard University. He also holds degrees in Persian literature and applied linguistics from the University of Utah. He has taught at Kuwait University, Brown University, Columbia University, and the University of Florida. Prior to entering academia he worked for several years in Europe as a musician, film critic, and travel writer
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Religious Denomination
A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.Major denominations and religions of the world.The term refers to the various Christian denominations (for example, Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and the many varieties of Protestantism)
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Judaism
Judaism
Judaism
(originally from Hebrew יהודה‬, Yehudah, "Judah";[1][2] via Latin
Latin
and Greek) is an ancient, monotheistic, Abrahamic religion with the Torah
Torah
as its foundational text.[3] It encompasses the religion, philosophy and culture of the Jewish people.[4] Judaism
Judaism
is considered by religious Jews
Jews
to be the expression of the covenant that God
God
established with the Children of Israel.[5] Judaism
Judaism
includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. The Torah
Torah
is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible, and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash
Midrash
and the Talmud
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Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
is the branch of religious Judaism
Judaism
which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation, and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah, as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tannaim and Amoraim
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