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Iranian Philosophy
Iranian philosophy
Iranian philosophy
(Persian:فلسفه ایرانی) or Persian philosophy[1][2][3][4][5] can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustra's teachings. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, the chronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to 1500 BC
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Colotes
Colotes of Lampsacus (Greek: Κολώτης Λαμψακηνός, Kolōtēs Lampsakēnos; c. 320 – after 268 BC)[1] was a pupil of Epicurus, and one of the most famous of his disciples. He wrote a work to prove That it is impossible even to live according to the doctrines of the other philosophers (ὅτι κατὰ τὰ τῶν ἄλλων φιλοσόφων δόγματα οὐδὲ ζῆν ἐστιν). It was dedicated to king Ptolemy II Philadelphus. In refutation of it Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote two works, a dialogue, to prove, That it is impossible even to live pleasantly according to Epicurus, and a work entitled Against Colotes.[2] According to Plutarch, Colotes was clever, but vain, dogmatic and intolerant. He made violent attacks upon Socrates, and other great philosophers. He was a great favourite with Epicurus, who used, by way of endearment, to call him Koλωτάρας and Koλωτάριoς
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Sport In Iran
Many sports are practiced in Iran, both traditional and modern. Tehran, for example, was the first city in West Asia to host the Asian Games in 1974, and continues to host and participate in major international sporting events to this day. Freestyle wrestling
Freestyle wrestling
has been traditionally regarded as Iran's national sport, however today, football is the most popular sport in Iran
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Plato
Plato
Plato
(/ˈpleɪtoʊ/;[a][1] Greek: Πλάτων[a] Plátōn, pronounced [plá.tɔːn] in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423[b] – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece
Classical Greece
and the founder of the Academy
Academy
in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world
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Pliny The Elder
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, Pliny wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
(Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. His nephew, Pliny the Younger, wrote of him in a letter to the historian Tacitus:For my part I deem those blessed to whom, by favour of the gods, it has been granted either to do what is worth writing of, or to write what is worth reading; above measure blessed those on whom both gifts have been conferred
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Eudoxus Of Cnidus
Eudoxus of Cnidus
Cnidus
(/ˈjuːdəksəs/; Ancient Greek: Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios; c. 390 – c. 337 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Archytas
Archytas
and Plato. All of his works are lost, though some fragments are preserved in Hipparchus' commentary on Aratus's poem on astronomy.[1] Sphaerics by Theodosius of Bithynia may be based on a work by Eudoxus.Contents1 Life 2 Mathematics 3 Astronomy3.1 Eudoxan planetary models 3.2 Importance of Eudoxan system4 Ethics 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksLife[edit] His name Eudoxus means "honored" or "of good repute" (εὔδοξος, from eu "good" and doxa "opinion, belief, fame")
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Mazdakism
Part of a series on Nizari-Ismāʿīli Batiniyya, Hurufiyya, Kaysanites and Twelver
Twelver
Shī‘ismAlevismBeliefsAllah Quran Haqq–Muhammad–Ali Prophet Muḥammad ibn `Abd Allāh Muhammad-Ali Islamic prophet Zahir Batin Buyruks Tariqat Haqiqa Marifat Wahdat al-wujud Wahdat al-mawjud Baqaa Fana Haal Ihsan Kashf Nafs Keramat Al-Insān al-Kāmil Lataif Four Doors Manzil Nûr Sulook Yaqeen Devriye Poetry Cosmology Philosophy PsychologyPracticesZakat Zeyārat Taqiyya Ashura Hıdırellez Nowruz Saya Mawlid Music Düşkünlük Meydanı Fasting MüsahiplikThe Twelve ImamsAli Hasan Husayn al-Abidin al-Baqir a
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Manicheism
WesternRevelation Divine illumination Divine lightIslamicTa'wil Irfan Nūr Sufism IsmāʿīlīsmEasternJnana Bodhi PrajnaBuddhism Hinduism Gnostic
Gnostic
sectsList of Gnostic
Gnostic
sectsSyrian-EgypticSethianism


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Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism,[n 1] or more natively Mazdayasna (Persian: مَزدَیَسنا یا دین زرتشتی), is one of the world's oldest extant religions, "combining a cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism in a manner unique [...] among the major religions of the world".[1] Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster
Zoroaster
(or Zarathustra),[2] it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda
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Mongol Invasion Of Central Asia
The Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Central Asia
Central Asia
occurred after the unification of the Mongol
Mongol
and Turkic tribes on the Mongolian plateau in 1206. It was finally complete when Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
conquered the Khwarizmian Empire
Khwarizmian Empire
in 1221.Contents1 Siberia (1207-1209) 2 Uyghurs, Qarluqs and Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
(1216-1218) 3 Khwarezmia (1219-1221) 4 ReferencesSiberia (1207-1209)[edit] Main article: History of Siberia §  Mongol
Mongol
conquest The conquest of the forest peoples of Siberia was carried out in 1207 by Genghis' eldest son, Jochi
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Middle Platonism
Middle Platonism
Platonism
is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC – when Antiochus of Ascalon rejected the scepticism of the New Academy – until the development of Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
under Plotinus in the 3rd century. Middle Platonism
Platonism
absorbed many doctrines from the rival Peripatetic and Stoic schools. The pre-eminent philosopher in this period, Plutarch
Plutarch
(c. 45–120), defended the freedom of the will and the immortality of the soul. He sought to show that God, in creating the world, had transformed matter, as the receptacle of evil, into the divine soul of the world, where it continued to operate as the source of all evil. God is a transcendent being, which operates through divine intermediaries, which are the gods and daemons of popular religion
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Judaism
Judaism
Judaism
(originally from Hebrew יהודה‬, Yehudah, "Judah";[1][2] via Latin
Latin
and Greek) is an ancient, monotheistic, Abrahamic religion with the Torah
Torah
as its foundational text.[3] It encompasses the religion, philosophy and culture of the Jewish people.[4] Judaism
Judaism
is considered by religious Jews
Jews
to be the expression of the covenant that God
God
established with the Children of Israel.[5] Judaism
Judaism
includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. The Torah
Torah
is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible, and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash
Midrash
and the Talmud
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Oxford Dictionary Of Philosophy
The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (1994; second edition 2008; third edition 2016) is a dictionary of philosophy by Simon Blackburn, published by Oxford University Press. References[edit]Blackburn, Simon (2008). The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (revised 2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283134-8. Archived from the original on 2012-03-29. External links[edit]The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy Companion WebsiteThis article about a reference book is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article about a philosophy-related book is a stub
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Iranian Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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