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Iranian Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Graeco-Phrygian
Graeco-Phrygian /ˌɡriːkoʊˈfrɪdʒiən/ is a hypothetical branch of the Indo-European language family
Indo-European language family
with two branches in turn: Greek and Phrygian. Greek has also been variously grouped with Armenian (Graeco-Armenian; Graeco-Aryan), Ancient Macedonian (Graeco-Macedonian) and, more recently, Messapian. Multiple or all of these, with the exception of Armenian, are sometimes (tentatively) classified under "Hellenic"; at other times, Hellenic is posited to consist of only Greek
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ISO 639-5
ISO 639-5:2008 "Codes for the representation of names of languages—Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and groups" is a highly incomplete international standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). It was developed by ISO Technical Committee 37, Subcommittee 2, and first published on May 15, 2008. It is part of the ISO 639 series of standards.Contents1 Collective codes 2 Relationship to other parts of ISO 639 3 History 4 Deficiencies 5 References 6 External linksCollective codes[edit] ISO 639-5 defines alpha-3 (3-letter) codes, called "collective codes," that identify language families and groups. As of August 29, 2008 update to ISO 639-5, the standard defined 114 collective codes
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Daco-Thracian
The linguistic classification of the ancient Thracian language
Thracian language
has long been a matter of contention and uncertainty, and there are widely varying hypotheses regarding its position among other Paleo-Balkan languages.[1][2] It is not contested, however, that the Thracian languages were Indo-European languages
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Indo-European Ablaut
In linguistics, the Indo-European ablaut (pronounced /ˈæblaʊt/) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language
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Western Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia
Asia
or Southwest Asia
Asia
is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East
Middle East
(or the Near East), the main difference usually being the exclusion of the majority of Egypt (which would be counted as part of North Africa) and the inclusion of the Caucasus. The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics. The total population of Western Asia
Asia
is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt
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Caucasus
 Abkhazia Artsakh South OssetiaAutonomous republics and federal regions Russia Adygea  Chechnya  Dagestan  Ingushetia  Kabardino-Balkaria Karachay-Cherkessia  Krasnodar Krai North Ossetia-Alania  Stavropol Krai Georgia Adjara Abkhazia (since 2008, in exile) Azerbaijan NakhchivanDemonym CaucasianTime Zones UTC+02:00, UTC+03:00, UTC+03:30, UTC+4:00, UTC+04:30The Caucasus
Caucasus
/ˈkɔːkəsəs/ or Caucasia /kɔːˈkeɪʒə/ is a region located at the border of
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Paeonian Language
The Paeonian language is the poorly attested language of the ancient Paeonians, whose kingdom once stretched north of Macedon
Macedon
into Dardania and in earlier times into southwestern Thrace. Several Paeonian words are known from classical sources:monapos, monaipos, the European bison tilôn, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias paprax, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias. Paprakas, masc. acc. pl.A number of anthroponyms (some known only from Paeonian coinage) are attested: Agis (Άγις), Patraos (Πατράος), Lycpeios (Λύκπειος), Audoleon
Audoleon
(Αυδολέων), Eupolemos (Εὐπόλεμος), Ariston (Αρίστων), etc
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Mysian Language
The Mysian language was spoken by Mysians
Mysians
inhabiting Mysia
Mysia
in north-west Anatolia. Little is known about the Mysian language. Strabo noted that their language was, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and Phrygian languages. As such, the Mysian language could be a language of the Anatolian group
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Messapian Language
Messapian (/mɛˈsæpiən, mə-, -ˈseɪ-/; also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of southeastern Italy, once spoken in the region of Apulia. It was spoken by the three Iapygian tribes of the region: the Messapians, the Peucetians
Peucetians
and the Daunians. The language has been preserved in about 300 inscriptions dating from the 6th to the 1st century BC. Messapian might have been related to the Illyrian language
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Liburnian Language
The Liburnians
Liburnians
(or Liburni)[1] were an ancient Illyrian tribe inhabiting the district called Liburnia,[2][3][4] a coastal region of the northeastern Adriatic between the rivers Arsia (Raša) and Titius (Krka) in what is now Croatia. According to legend they populated Kerkyra until shortly after the Corinthians settled the island, c
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Linguasphere Observatory
The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.Contents1 History 2 The Lingua sphere Register and Linguascale referential framework2.1 Examples 2.2 Languages of London 2.3 See also3 "Langues de la Liberté/Languages of Liberty" 4 "In the galaxy of languages, each person's voice is a star" 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor, a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
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Proto-Indo-European Accent
Proto-Indo-European accent refers to the accentual system of Proto-Indo-European language.Contents1 Description 2 Reflexes 3 Unaccented words 4 Interpretation 5 Modern theories 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesDescription[edit] Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is usually reconstructed as having had variable lexical stress: the placement of the stress in a word (the accent) was not predictable by its phonological rules. Stressed syllables received a higher pitch than unstressed ones so PIE is often said to have had pitch accent. (That must not be confused with the other meaning of the term "pitch accent", which refers to a system of one or two syllables per word having one of at least two unpredictable tones, and the tones of any other syllables being predictable.) PIE accent could be mobile so it could change place throughout the inflectional paradigm
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Proto-Indo-European Phonology
The phonology of the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) has been reconstructed by linguists, based on the similarities and differences among current and extinct Indo-European languages. Because PIE was not written, linguists must rely on the evidence of its earliest attested descendants, such as Hittite, Sanskrit, Ancient Greek, and Latin, to reconstruct its phonology. The reconstruction of abstract units of PIE phonological systems (i.e. segments, or phonemes in traditional phonology) is mostly uncontroversial, although areas of dispute remain
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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