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Iranian Calendars
The IRANIAN CALENDARS (Persian : گاه‌شماری ایرانی‎‎ Gâhshomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran
Iran
(Persia). One of the longest chronological records in human history, the Iranian calendar has been modified time and again during its history to suit administrative, climatic, and religious purposes. The modern Iranian calendar is now the official calendar in Iran. It begins at the midnight nearest to the instant of the vernal equinox as determined by astronomical calculations for the Iran
Iran
Standard Time meridian (52.5°E or GMT+3.5h). It is, therefore, an observation-based calendar, unlike the Gregorian , which is rule-based. The Iranian year usually begins within a day of 21 March of the Gregorian calendar. To find the corresponding year of the Gregorian calendar, add 621 or 622 (depending on the time of the year) to a solar hijri year
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Yazata
YAZATA is the Avestan language
Avestan language
word for a Zoroastrian concept with a wide range of meanings but generally signifying (or used as an epithet of) a divinity. The term literally means "worthy of worship or veneration", and is thus, in this more general sense, also applied to certain healing plants, primordial creatures, the fravashis of the dead, and to certain prayers that are themselves considered holy. The yazatas collectively are "the good powers under Ohrmuzd ", who is "the greatest of the yazatas". CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 In scripture * 3 In tradition * 4 In the present day * 5 References * 6 Further reading ETYMOLOGY Yazata is an Avestan language
Avestan language
passive adjectival participle derived from yaz-; "to worship, to honor, to venerate". The word yasna – "worship, sacrifice, oblation, prayer" – comes from the same root
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Persian People
The PERSIANS are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran
Iran
. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language
Persian language
, as well as closely related languages. The ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered modern-day Iran
Iran
by the early 10th century BC. Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires, well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world. Throughout history, the Persians have contributed greatly to various forms of art , owning one of the world\'s most prominent literary traditions , and have made contributions in numerous other fields, including mathematics, theology, medicine, and various other sciences
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Zoroaster
ZOROASTER (/ˌzɒroʊˈæstər/ or /ˈzɒroʊˌæstər/ , from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs from Persian : زرتشت‎‎ Zartosht), also known as ZARATHUSTRA (/ˌzɑːrəˈθuːstrə/ ; Avestan : 𐬀𐬭𐬙𐬱𐬎𐬚𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬰 Zaraθuštra), ZARATHUSHTRA SPITAMA or ASHU ZARATHUSHTRA, was an ancient Iranian prophet whose teachings developed into Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
. He inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Persia . He was a native speaker of Old Avestan and lived in the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau , but his exact birthplace is uncertain
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Second Millennium BCE
The 2ND MILLENNIUM BC spans the years 2000 through 1000 BC. It marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age . Its first half is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and Babylonia . The alphabet develops. Indo-Iranian migration onto the Iranian plateau and onto the Indian subcontinent propagates the use of the chariot . Chariot warfare and population movements lead to violent changes at the center of the millennium, a new order emerges with Greek dominance of the Aegean and the rise of the Hittite Empire . The end of the millennium sees the transition to the Iron Age . World population begins to rise steadily, reaching some 50 million towards 1000 BC
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Royal Stars
In astrology , the ROYAL STARS of Persia are Aldebaran , Regulus , Antares and Fomalhaut . They were regarded as the guardians of the sky in approximately 3000 BCE during the time of the Ancient Persians in the area of modern-day Iran. The Persians believed that the sky was divided into four districts with each district being guarded by one of the four Royal Stars. The stars were believed to hold both good and evil power and the Persians looked upon them for guidance in scientific calculations of the sky, such as the calendar and lunar/solar cycles, and for predictions about the future. Although there is mention of the Royal Stars influencing the ancient Egyptians in roughly 5,000 BCE, they were noted when the ancient Persian prophet Zarathustra mentioned them in the Bundahishn , the collection of Zoroastrian cosmogony and cosmology , in approximately 1,500 BCE
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Amesha Spentas
AMESHA SPENTA (Aməša Spənta) is an Avestan language
Avestan language
term for a class of divine entities in Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
and literally means "Immortal (which is) holy" Later Middle Persian
Middle Persian
variations of the term include the contraction 'Ameshaspand' as well as the specifically Zoroastrian 'Mahraspand' and 'Amahraspand'. CONTENTS * 1 As the great "divine sparks" * 2 In non-specific usage * 3 Doctrine * 4 Notes * 5 Bibliography and References AS THE GREAT "DIVINE SPARKS" Significantly more common than the non-specific meaning of Amesha Spenta (see below ) is a restrictive use of the term to refer to the great six "divine sparks" of Ahura Mazda . In Zoroastrian tradition, these are the first six emanations of the noncreated Creator, through whom all subsequent creation was accomplished
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Elamite Language
ELAMITE is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites
Elamites
. It was used in present-day southwestern Iran
Iran
from 2800 to 550 BC. The last written records in Elamite appear around the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
. Elamite has no demonstrable relatives and is usually considered a language isolate . The lack of established relatives is one reason for its interpretation being difficult. CONTENTS * 1 Writing system * 2 Linguistic typology * 3 History * 4 Phonology * 5 Morphology * 5.1 Nouns * 5.2 Verbs * 6 Syntax * 6.1 Language samples * 7 Relations to other language families * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links WRITING SYSTEM Elamite cuneiform , adapted from Akkadian cuneiform , was used from ca. 2500 to 331 BC
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Cyrus The Great
PERSIAN REVOLT * Battle of Hyrba * Battle of the Persian Border INVASION OF ANATOLIA * Battle of Pteria * Battle of Thymbra * Siege of Sardis
Sardis
INVASION OF BABYLONIA * Battle of Opis * Siege of Babylon
Babylon
CYRUS II OF PERSIA ( Old Persian
Old Persian
: 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian : کوروش Kūrosh; Hebrew
Hebrew
: כֹּרֶשׁ Koresh; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as CYRUS THE GREAT  and also called CYRUS THE ELDER by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire . Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East , expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia
Southwest Asia
and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus
Caucasus

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Pastoral
A PASTORAL lifestyle (see pastoralism ) is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture. It lends its name to a genre of literature, art, and music that depicts such life in an idealized manner, typically for urban audiences . A pastoral is a work of this genre , also known as BUCOLIC, from the Greek βουκολικόν, from βουκόλος, meaning a cowherd
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Tiri, Estonia
TIRI is a village in Lasva Parish , Võru County in southeastern Estonia . It has a population of 12 and an area of 4.8 km². REFERENCES * ^ "Haldusjaotus". Lasva vald. Retrieved 11 October 2010. * v * t * e Settlements in Lasva Parish VILLAGES * Andsumäe * Hellekunnu * Husari * Kääpa * Kaku * Kannu * Kõrgessaare * Kühmamäe * Lasva * Lauga * Lehemetsa * Listaku * Madala * Mäessaare * Mõrgi * Nõnova * Noodasküla * Oleski * Otsa * Paidra * Pässä * Peraküla * Pikakannu * Pikasilla * Pille * Pindi * Puusepa * Rusima * Saaremaa * Sooküla * Tammsaare * Tiri * Tohkri * Tsolgo * Tüütsmäe * Villa * Voki-Tamme This Võru County location article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Old Persian Language
Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
------------------------- OLD PERSIAN (c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian cuneiform ------------------------- MIDDLE PERSIAN (c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts Manichaean alphabet Avestan alphabet ------------------------- MODERN PERSIAN (from 800) Persian alphabet • Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet The OLD PERSIAN LANGUAGE is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages
Iranian languages
(the other being Avestan ). Old Persian appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets , and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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Daena
DAENA is a Zoroastrian concept representing insight and revelation, hence "conscience" or "religion." Alternately, Daena is considered to be a divinity, counted among the yazatas . CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 In Scripture * 3 See also * 4 References NOMENCLATURE Daena is a feminine noun which translates to "that which is seen or observed". In Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to an Ancient Faith, Peter Clark suggests that the term might also be tied to the Avestan root "deh" or "di-" to gain understanding. The Avestan language
Avestan language
term – trisyllabic daēnā in Gathic Avestan and bisyllabic dēnā in Younger Avestan – continues into Middle Persian as dēn, which preserves the Avestan meanings. For comparison, it has a Sanskrit congate dhénā which means thought, but thought in its higher and spiritual reaches. Remarkably Zen word in Zen Buddhism is also derived from dhayanā
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Meridian (geography)
A (GEOGRAPHICAL) MERIDIAN (or LINE OF LONGITUDE) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole
South Pole
, connecting points of equal longitude . The position of a point along the meridian is given by its latitude indicating how many degrees north or south of the Equator
Equator
the point is. Each meridian is perpendicular to all circles of latitude . Each is also the same length, being half of a great circle on the Earth's surface and therefore measuring 20,003.93 km (12,429.9 miles). CONTENTS * 1 Geographic * 2 Magnetic * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links GEOGRAPHIC The astronomic prime meridian at Greenwich, England. The geodetic prime meridian is actually 102.478 meters east of this point since the adoption of WGS84
WGS84

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Dhu Al-Qi'dah
DHU\'L-QI\'DAH, DHU\'L-QA\'DAH, or alternatively ZULQIDA (Arabic : ذو القعدة‎‎, also transliterated Ḏū l-Qaʿdah, IPA: ) is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
. It is one of the four sacred months in Islam during which warfare is prohibited, hence the name "Master of Truce". CONTENTS * 1 Transliteration * 2 Timing * 3 Islamic Events * 4 Hadith * 5 References * 6 External links TRANSLITERATIONThe most correct and most traditionally widespread transliteration of the month according to the thirteenth century Syrian jurist al-Nawawi is Dhu'l Qa'dah. Al-Nawawi also mentions that a smaller group of linguists allow the transliteration Dhu'l-Qi'dah, however. In modern times, it is most commonly referred to as Dhu'l Qi'dah although this is neither linguistically nor historically the strongest position
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Mordad
MORDAD (Persian : مرداد‎‎, Persian pronunciation: ) is the fifth month of the Iranian calendar . Mordad has thirty-one days, beginning in July and ending in August of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. It is the second month of summer after Tir , and is followed by Shahrivar . The name "Mordad" derives from Middle Persian "Amurdad" from Avestan ' Ameretat ', the Zoroastrian divinity of "immortality", and under whose protection the month stands. EVENTS28 - 1332 - Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh is overthrown in a coup d'état with the backing of the United States Central Intelligence Agency , beginning the nearly 25-year reign of the pro-US Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
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