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Iranian Calendar
The Iranian calendars (Persian: گاه‌شماری ایرانی‎ Gâhshomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran
Iran
(Persia). One of the longest chronological records in human history, the Iranian calendar has been modified time and again during its history to suit administrative, climatic, and religious purposes. The modern Iranian calendar is now the official calendar in Iran. It begins at the midnight nearest to the instant of the vernal equinox as determined by astronomical calculations for the Iran
Iran
Standard Time meridian (52.5°E or GMT+3.5h). It is, therefore, an observation-based calendar, unlike the Gregorian, which is rule-based.[1] The Iranian year usually begins within a day of 21 March of the Gregorian calendar
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Avestan Language
Avestan
Avestan
/əˈvɛstən/,[2] also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name. The language is classified as an Iranian language, a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages within the Indo-European family
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Egypt
Coordinates: 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30Arab Republic
Republic
of Egyptجمهورية مصر العربيةArabic: Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyahEgyptian: Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country"Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217Official languages Arabic[a]National language Egyptian ArabicReligion90% Islam 9% Orthodox Christian 1% Other Christian[1]Demonym EgyptianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentAbdel Fattah el-Sisi• Prime MinisterSherif IsmailLegislature House of RepresentativesEstablishment• Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt[2][3][b]c
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Elamite Language
Elamite is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites. It was used in present-day southwestern Iran
Iran
from 2800 to 550 BC. The last written records in Elamite appear around the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
by Cyrus the Great. Elamite is generally thought to have no demonstrable relatives and is usually considered a language isolate
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Old Persian Language
Western Iranian languages Old Persian
Old Persian
(c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian
Old Persian
cuneiform Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts
Pahlavi scripts
Manichaean alphabet
Manichaean alphabet
Avestan
Avestan
alphabet Modern Persian
Modern Persian
(from 800) Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
• Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet Old Persian
Old Persian
is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan). Old Persian
Old Persian
appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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Yazata
Yazata is the Avestan language
Avestan language
word for a Zoroastrian concept with a wide range of meanings but generally signifying (or used as an epithet of) a divinity. The term literally means "worthy of worship or veneration",[1][2] and is thus, in this more general sense, also applied to certain healing plants, primordial creatures, the fravashis of the dead, and to certain prayers that are themselves considered holy. The yazatas collectively are "the good powers under Ohrmuzd [ Ahura Mazda]", who is "the greatest of the yazatas".[3]Contents1 Etymology 2 In scripture 3 In tradition 4 In the present day 5 References 6 Further readingEtymology[edit] Yazata is an Avestan language
Avestan language
passive adjectival participle derived from yaz-; "to worship, to honor, to venerate". The word yasna – "worship, sacrifice, oblation, prayer" – comes from the same root
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Pastoral
A pastoral lifestyle (see pastoralism) is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture. It lends its name to a genre of literature, art, and music that depicts such life in an idealized manner, typically for urban audiences
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Thursday
Thursday
Thursday
is the day of the week following Wednesday
Wednesday
and before Friday. According to the
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Cyrus The Great
Persian revoltBattle of Hyrba Battle of the Persian BorderInvasion of AnatoliaBattle of Pteria Battle of Thymbra Siege of SardisInvasion of BabyloniaBattle of Opis Siege of Babylon Cyrus II of Persia
Persia
(Old Persian: 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš;[4] New Persian: کوروش Kuruš; Hebrew: כֹּרֶשׁ‬‬, Modern Kōréš, Tiberian Kōréš; c. 600 – 530 BC),[5] commonly known as Cyrus the Great [6] and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Empire, the first Persian Empire.[7] Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East,[7] expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Caucasus
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Ahura Mazda
Ahura Mazda
Mazda
(/əˌhʊərə ˈmæzdə/;[1] also known as Ohrmazd, Auramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz; Avestan: 𐬀𐬵𐬎𐬭𐬀 𐬨𐬀𐬰𐬛𐬁, Ahura Mazdā; Old Persian: 𐏈, A(h)uramazdā; Persian: اهورامزدا‬, Ahurâ-Mazdâ; Aramaic: 𐡀𐡄𐡅𐡓𐡌𐡆𐡃‬; Akkadian: 𒀭𒀀𒄷𒊒𒈠𒊍𒁕, Aḫurumazda-;[2] Elamite: 𒀭𒌋𒊏𒈦𒁕, Uramasda)[3] is the Avestan
Avestan
name for the creator and sole God
God
of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran. Ahura Mazda
Mazda
is described as the highest spirit of worship in Zoroastrianism, along with being the first and most frequently invoked spirit in the Yasna
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Amesha Spenta
Amesha Spenta (Aməša Spənta) is an Avestan language
Avestan language
term for a class of divine entities in Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
and literally means "Immortal (which is) holy"[1][n 1] Later Middle Persian
Middle Persian
variations of the term include the contraction 'Ameshaspand' as well as the specifically Zoroastrian 'Mahraspand' and 'Amahraspand'.Contents1 As the great "divine sparks" 2 In non-specific usage 3 Doctrine 4 Notes 5 Bibliography and ReferencesAs the great "divine sparks" [edit] Significantly more common than the non-specific meaning of Amesha Spenta (see below) is a restrictive use of the term to refer to the great six "divine sparks" of Ahura Mazda. In Zoroastrian tradition, these are the first six emanations of the noncreated Creator, through whom all subsequent creation was accomplished
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Persian People
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.[3][2] They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language,[4][5][6] as well as closely related languages.[7][8] The ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered modern-day Iran
Iran
by the early 10th century BC.[9][10] Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires,[11][12] well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the anc
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Second Millennium BCE
The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. It marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. Its first half is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and Babylonia. The alphabet develops. Indo-Iranian migration onto the Iranian plateau and onto the Indian subcontinent propagates the use of the chariot. Chariot warfare and population movements lead to violent changes at the center of the millennium, a new order emerges with Greek dominance of the Aegean and the rise of the Hittite Empire. The end of the millennium sees the transition to the Iron Age
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Zoroaster
Zoroaster
Zoroaster
(/ˌzɒroʊˈæstər ˈzɒroʊˌæstər/; from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs, Persian: زرتشت), also known as Zarathustra
Zarathustra
(/ˌzɑːrəˈθuːstrə/; Avestan: 𐬀𐬭𐬙𐬱𐬎𐬚𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬰 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism. He inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Persia. He was a native speaker of Old Avestan
Avestan
and lived in the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau, but his exact birthplace is uncertain.[3][4] Dating is uncertain as there is no scholarly consensus,[5] but on linguistic and socio-cultural evidence Zoroaster
Zoroaster
is dated around 1000 BCE and earlier i.e
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Bhaga
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
bhaga (IAST: bhaga) is a term for "lord, patron", but also for "wealth, prosperity". The cognate term in Avestan
Avestan
and Old Persian is baga, of uncertain meaning but used in a sense in which "lord, patron, sharer/distributor of good fortune" might also apply. The cognate in Slavic languages
Slavic languages
is the root bogъ. The semantics is similar to English lord (from hlaford "bread-warden"), the idea being that it is part of the function of a chieftain or leader to distribute riches or spoils among his followers. The name of the city of Baghdad derives from Middle Persian
Middle Persian
baga-data, "lord-given". In the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Rigveda, bhaga is an epithet of both mortals and gods (e.g
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