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Iranian Calendar
The IRANIAN CALENDARS (Persian : گاه‌شماری ایرانی‎‎ Gâhshomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran
Iran
(Persia). One of the longest chronological records in human history, the Iranian calendar has been modified time and again during its history to suit administrative, climatic, and religious purposes. The modern Iranian calendar is now the official calendar in Iran. It begins at the midnight nearest to the instant of the vernal equinox as determined by astronomical calculations for the Iran
Iran
Standard Time meridian (52.5°E or GMT+3.5h). It is, therefore, an observation-based calendar, unlike the Gregorian , which is rule-based. The Iranian year usually begins within a day of 21 March of the Gregorian calendar. To find the corresponding year of the Gregorian calendar, add 621 or 622 (depending on the time of the year) to a solar hijri year
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Egypt
Coordinates : 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30 Arab Republic
Republic
of Egypt جمهورية مصر العربية * ARABIC : Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyah EGYPTIAN : Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyah Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Bilady, Bilady, Bilady " "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country" Capital and largest
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Achaemenid Empire
The ACHAEMENID EMPIRE (/əˈkiːmənɪd/ ; c. 550–330 BC), also called the FIRST PERSIAN EMPIRE, was an empire based in Western Asia , founded by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans
Balkans
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was one of the largest empires in history , spanning 5.5 million square kilometers, and was larger than any previous empire in history . It is equally notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings ), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system , the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires
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Yazata
YAZATA is the Avestan language
Avestan language
word for a Zoroastrian concept with a wide range of meanings but generally signifying (or used as an epithet of) a divinity. The term literally means "worthy of worship or veneration", and is thus, in this more general sense, also applied to certain healing plants, primordial creatures, the fravashis of the dead, and to certain prayers that are themselves considered holy. The yazatas collectively are "the good powers under Ohrmuzd ", who is "the greatest of the yazatas". CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 In scripture * 3 In tradition * 4 In the present day * 5 References * 6 Further reading ETYMOLOGY Yazata is an Avestan language
Avestan language
passive adjectival participle derived from yaz-; "to worship, to honor, to venerate". The word yasna – "worship, sacrifice, oblation, prayer" – comes from the same root
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Ahura Mazda
AHURA MAZDA (/əˌhʊrəˌmæzdə/ ; ) (also known as OHRMAZD, AHURAMAZDA, HOURMAZD, HORMAZD, HARZOO and HURMUZ, Lord or simply as spirit) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism , the old Iranian religion which spread across Asia predating Christianity, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran . Ahura Mazda is described as the highest spirit of worship in Zoroastrianism, along with being the first and most frequently invoked spirit in the Yasna . The literal meaning of the word Ahura is "mighty" or "lord" and Mazda is wisdom . Ahura Mazda first appeared in the Achaemenid period (c. 550 – 330 BCE) under Darius I 's Behistun Inscription . Until Artaxerxes II (405–04 to 359–58 BCE), Ahura Mazda was worshipped and invoked alone
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Amesha Spentas
AMESHA SPENTA (Aməša Spənta) is an Avestan language
Avestan language
term for a class of divine entities in Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
and literally means "Immortal (which is) holy" Later Middle Persian
Middle Persian
variations of the term include the contraction 'Ameshaspand' as well as the specifically Zoroastrian 'Mahraspand' and 'Amahraspand'. CONTENTS * 1 As the great "divine sparks" * 2 In non-specific usage * 3 Doctrine * 4 Notes * 5 Bibliography and References AS THE GREAT "DIVINE SPARKS" Significantly more common than the non-specific meaning of Amesha Spenta (see below ) is a restrictive use of the term to refer to the great six "divine sparks" of Ahura Mazda . In Zoroastrian tradition, these are the first six emanations of the noncreated Creator, through whom all subsequent creation was accomplished
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Mithra
MITHRA ( Avestan : 𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, Old Persian : 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça) is the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
angelic Divinity
Divinity
(yazata ) of Covenant and Oath
Oath
. In addition to being the Divinity
Divinity
of Contracts, Mithra
Mithra
is also a judicial figure, an all-seeing Protector of Truth , and the Guardian of Cattle, the Harvest and of The Waters . The Romans attributed their Mithraic mysteries (the mystery religion known as Mithraism) to "Persian" (i.e. Zoroastrian) sources relating to Mithra. Since the early 1970s the dominant scholarship has noted dissimilarities between the Persian and Roman traditions, at most, as a result of by Roman perceptions of (Pseudo-) Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
ideas
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Bhaga
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
BHAGA ( IAST
IAST
: bhaga) is a term for "lord , patron ", but also for "wealth, prosperity". The cognate term in Avestan and Old Persian is baga, of uncertain meaning but used in a sense in which "lord, patron, sharer/distributor of good fortune" might also apply. The cognate in Slavic languages
Slavic languages
is the root bogъ. The semantics is similar to English lord (from hlaford "bread-warden"), the idea being that it is part of the function of a chieftain or leader to distribute riches or spoils among his followers. The name of the city of Baghdad derives from Middle Persian
Middle Persian
baga-data, "lord-given". In the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Rigveda
Rigveda
, bhaga is an epithet of both mortals and gods (e.g
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Julian Calendar
The JULIAN CALENDAR, proposed by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 46 BC (708 AUC ), was a reform of the Roman calendar
Roman calendar
. It took effect on 1 January
January
45 BC (AUC 709), by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII
. The Julian calendar
Julian calendar
gains against the mean tropical year at the rate of one day in 128 years. For the Gregorian the figure is one day in 3,030 years. The difference in the average length of the year between Julian (365.25 days) and Gregorian (365.2425 days) is 0.002%
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Old Persian Language
Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
------------------------- OLD PERSIAN (c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian cuneiform ------------------------- MIDDLE PERSIAN (c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts Manichaean alphabet Avestan alphabet ------------------------- MODERN PERSIAN (from 800) Persian alphabet • Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet The OLD PERSIAN LANGUAGE is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages
Iranian languages
(the other being Avestan ). Old Persian appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets , and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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Elamite Language
ELAMITE is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites
Elamites
. It was used in present-day southwestern Iran
Iran
from 2800 to 550 BC. The last written records in Elamite appear around the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
. Elamite has no demonstrable relatives and is usually considered a language isolate . The lack of established relatives is one reason for its interpretation being difficult. CONTENTS * 1 Writing system * 2 Linguistic typology * 3 History * 4 Phonology * 5 Morphology * 5.1 Nouns * 5.2 Verbs * 6 Syntax * 6.1 Language samples * 7 Relations to other language families * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links WRITING SYSTEM Elamite cuneiform , adapted from Akkadian cuneiform , was used from ca. 2500 to 331 BC
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Babylonian Calendar
The BABYLONIAN CALENDAR was a lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 lunar months , each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset, plus an intercalary month inserted as needed by decree. The calendar is based on a Sumerian ( Ur III
Ur III
) predecessor preserved in the UMMA CALENDAR of Shulgi
Shulgi
(c. 21st century BC). CONTENTS * 1 Months * 2 Days * 3 See also * 4 References * 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Bibliography * 5 External links MONTHSThe year begins in spring, and is divided into reš šatti "beginning", mišil šatti "middle", and qīt šatti "end of the year". The word for "month" was arḫu (construct state araḫ). That the calendar originates in Babylonian, and not in later Assyrian times is shown by the fact that the chief deity of the Assyrians is assigned the surplus intercalary month
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Tiri, Estonia
TIRI is a village in Lasva Parish , Võru County
Võru County
in southeastern Estonia
Estonia
. It has a population of 12 and an area of 4.8 km². REFERENCES * ^ "Haldusjaotus". Lasva vald. Retrieved 11 October 2010
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Sraosha
SRAOSHA (IPA: ) is the Avestan
Avestan
name of the Zoroastrian yazata of "Obedience" or "Observance", which is also the literal meaning of his name. In the Middle Persian
Middle Persian
commentaries of the 9th-12th centuries, the divinity appears as S(a)rosh. This form appears in many variants in New Persian as well, for example سروش, Sorūsh. Unlike many of the other Yazatas (concepts that are "worthy of adoration"). Sraosha is also frequently referred to as the "Voice of Conscience", which overlaps with both "Obedience" and as his role as the "Teacher of Daena ", Daena being the hypostasis of both "Conscience" and "Religion"
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Arshtat
ARSHTAT (arštāt) is the Avestan language
Avestan language
name of a Zoroastrian principle and signifies either "justice" or "honesty." As a substantive, arshtat designates the divinity Arshtat, the hypostasis of "Rectitude" and "Justice". Her standing epithet is "world-furthering" or "world-promoting." CONTENTS * 1 In scripture * 2 In tradition * 3 References * 4 Bibliography IN SCRIPTUREAlthough there is a yasht nominally dedicated to Arshtat ( Yasht 18), this hymn does not mention her, and it has been supposed that "the occurrence of arš- 'correct' may have been the reason" for the dedication. Arshtat is closely allied with "the most upright" Rashnu , the "Judge." The two appear as a dvandvah compound "Rashnu-Arshtat" in Yasna
Yasna
1.7 and 2.7, in Yasht 10.139 and 12.40, and in Sirozeh 1.18 and 2.18
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Asman
ASMAN is the Avestan and Middle Persian
Middle Persian
name of the Zoroastrian divinity that is the hypostasis of the sky. Asman is the "highest heaven," and is distinguished from the firmament (thwasha), which lies nearer the earth. The 27th day of the Zoroastrian calendar
Zoroastrian calendar
is dedicated to him. In the Avesta
Avesta
, specifically in the Vendidad , the word is mentioned as being the first thing created. The word is also the origination of the word (آسمان) aasmaan in modern Persian , Urdu
Urdu
and Pashto as well as (ਅਸਮਾਨ) asmaan in Punjabi , (आसमान) in Hindi
Hindi
and (আসমান) in Bengali . REFERENCES * ^ Gershevitch Fisher, William Bayne (1985). Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge University Press
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