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Iraca
The iraca, sometimes spelled iraka,[1][2] was the ruler and high priest of Sugamuxi
Sugamuxi
in the confederation of the Muisca
Muisca
who inhabited the Altiplano Cundiboyacense; the central highlands of the Colombian Andes. Iraca
Iraca
can also refer to the Iraka Valley over which they ruled.[1][2][3] Important scholars who wrote about the iraca were Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita, Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
and Ezequiel Uricoechea.Contents1 Background 2 Description 3 Known iraca 4 See also 5 References5.1 BibliographyBackground[edit]Reconstruction of the Sun Temple of Sugamuxi, where the iraca livedIn the centuries before the Spanish conquistadores entered central Colombia
Colombia
in the 1530s, the valleys of the Eastern Ranges were ruled by four main leaders and several independent caciques
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District University Of Bogotá
The Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas
Francisco José de Caldas
(Spanish: Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas) is a public, coeducational, research university based Bogotá, Colombia. It is the second most important public higher education institution in the city, after the National University
University
of Colombia, with a population of 26,140 students.[1] It was founded in 1948, by Priest
Priest
Daniel de Caicedo, who would become its first rector, with the support of the Bogotá
Bogotá
City Council, as the Municipal University
University
of Bogotá
Bogotá
(Spanish: Universidad Municipal de Bogotá). It changed its name to the current in 1957 when the municipality of Bogotá
Bogotá
became a district. Its establishment was officialized by the 1970 decree No. 1030, issued by the national government
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Conquistador
Conquistadors /kɒŋˈkɪstəˌdɔːrz/ (from Portuguese or Spanish conquistadores "conquerors"; Spanish pronunciation: [koŋkistaˈðoɾes], Portuguese pronunciation: [kũkiʃtɐˈdoɾis], [kõkiʃtɐˈðoɾɨʃ]) is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
in a general sense.[1][2] During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Asia, conquering territory and opening trade routes
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Gold
Gold
Gold
is a chemical element with symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold
Gold
often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium
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Tota, Boyacá
Tota is a town and municipality in the department of Boyacá, Colombia, part of the Sugamuxi Province. Tota is located approximately 40 km from Sogamoso and the municipality borders in the north Cuítiva, Aquitania in the east, Zetaquirá and San Eduardo in the south and westward of Tota the municipality of Pesca is located.[1] Nearby and named after the village is Lake Tota, the largest lake of Colombia.Contents1 History 2 Economy 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Before the Spanish conquest of the central highlands of Colombia (Altiplano Cundiboyacense), the area around Tota was inhabited by the Muisca, ruled by the zaque of Hunza, currently known as Tunja
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Busbanzá
Busbanzá (Spanish pronunciation: [buzβanˈsa]) is a town and municipality in the Colombian Department of Boyacá. Busbanzá is part of the Tundama Province, a subregion of Boyacá. Busbanzá is located at 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Sogamoso. It borders Betéitiva in the north, in the east and south Corrales and in the west Floresta.[1]Contents1 History 2 Economy 3 Born in Busbanzá 4 Gallery 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The first inhabitants of Busbanzá settled there from the Eastern Llanos near a former lake. They were the ancestors of the Muisca of Busbanzá and organized themselves in the cacicazgos of the Iraka Valley, together with Gámeza, Tobasía, Firavitoba, Iza, Pesca, Toca, Tota, Yaconí, Guaquira, Monquirá. According to the religion of the Muisca, it was bearded messenger god Bochica who educated the people to organize themselves in a theocracy
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Inca Empire
The Inca Empire
Empire
(Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions"[2]), also known as the Incan Empire
Empire
and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America,[3] and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.[4] Its political and administrative structure "was the most sophisticated found among native peoples" in the Americas.[5] The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco
Cusco
in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization
Inca civilization
arose from the highlands of Peru
Peru
sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods
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Maya Civilization
The Maya civilization
Maya civilization
was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system. The Maya civilization
Maya civilization
developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala
Guatemala
and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras
Honduras
and El Salvador
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Floresta, Boyacá
Floresta is a town and municipality in Boyacá Department, Colombia, part of the Tundama Province, a subregion of Boyacá. Floresta is situated on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes. It borders Santa Rosa de Viterbo, Cerinza and Betéitiva in the north, in the east Busbanzá and Corrales in the west Santa Rosa de Viterbo and Nobsa in the south.Contents1 History 2 Economy 3 Geology 4 Born in Floresta 5 Gallery 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] Before the Spanish conquest of the highlands of Colombia, the area of Floresta was inhabited by the Muisca, organized in their Muisca Confederation. In those days Floresta, together with Santa Rosa de Viterbo, was called Tobasía which is still the name of a corregimiento of the village. Tobasía was ruled by a cacique loyal to the ruler of Tundama, present-day Duitama. Modern Floresta was founded in 1818, three years before the independence of Colombia from the Spanish Empire
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Departments Of Colombia
Colombia
Colombia
is a unitary republic made up of thirty-two departments (Spanish: departamentos, sing. departamento) and a Capital District (Distrito Capital).[1] Each department has a Governor (gobernador) and a Department Assembly (Asamblea Departamental), elected by popular vote for a four-year period. The governor cannot be re-elected in consecutive periods. Departments are country subdivisions and are granted a certain degree of autonomy. Departments are formed by a grouping of municipalities (municipios, sing. municipio)
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Boyacá Department
Boyacá (Spanish pronunciation: [boʝaˈka]) is one of the thirty-two departments of Colombia, and the remnant of Boyacá State, one of the original nine states of the "United States of Colombia". Boyacá is centrally located within Colombia, almost entirely within the mountains of the Eastern Cordillera to the border with Venezuela, although the western end of the department extends to the Magdalena River at the town of Puerto Boyacá. Boyacá borders to the north with the Department of Santander, to the northeast with the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
Venezuela
and Norte de Santander, to the east with the departments of Arauca and Casanare
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Cacique
A cacique (Spanish: [kaˈθike]; Portuguese: [kɐˈsikɨ, kaˈsiki]; feminine form: cacica) is a leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. In the colonial era, Spaniards extended the word as a title for the leaders of practically all indigenous groups that they encountered in the Western Hemisphere
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Cordillera Oriental (Colombia)
The Cordillera Oriental (English: Eastern Ranges) is the widest of the three branches of the Colombian Andes. The range extends from south to north dividing from the Colombian Massif
Colombian Massif
in Huila Department
Huila Department
to Norte de Santander Department where it splits into the Serranía del Perijá and the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuelan Andes. The highest peak is Ritacuba Blanco
Ritacuba Blanco
at 5,410 m (17,750 ft) in the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy.Contents1 Geography 2 Protected areas 3 See also 4 ReferencesGeography[edit] The western part of the Cordillera Oriental belongs to the Magdalena River basin, while the eastern part includes the river basins of the Amazon River, Orinoco River, and Catatumbo River
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Aztec Civilization
Aztec
Aztec
culture (/ˈæztɛk/), was a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico
Mexico
in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521, during the time in which a triple alliance of the Mexica, Texcoca and Tepaneca tribes established the Aztec
Aztec
empire. The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
from the 14th to the 16th centuries. Aztec
Aztec
culture is the culture of the people referred to as Aztecs, but since most ethnic groups of central Mexico
Mexico
in the postclassic period shared basic cultural traits, many of the traits that characterize Aztec
Aztec
culture cannot be said to be exclusive to the Aztecs
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Lucas Fernández De Piedrahita
Fernández
Fernández
[ferˈnandeθ] is a Spanish surname meaning "son of Fernando". The Germanic name that it derives from means "brave traveler."[1] The Portuguese version of this surname is Fernandes
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Andes
The Andes
Andes
or Andean Mountains (Spanish: Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They form a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 to 700 km (120 to 430 mi) wide (widest between 18° south and 20° south latitude), and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes
Andes
extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina
Argentina
and Chile. Along their length, the Andes
Andes
are split into several ranges, which are separated by intermediate depressions. The Andes
Andes
are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Arequipa, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz
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