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Iquique
IQUIQUE (Spanish pronunciation: , ee-KEE-kay ) is a port city and commune in northern Chile
Chile
, capital of both the Iquique Province and Tarapacá Region . It lies on the Pacific coast , west of the Pampa del Tamarugal which is part of Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert
. It had a population of 180,601 according to the 2012 census. It is also the main commune of the Greater Iquique . The city developed during the heyday of the saltpetre mining in Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert
in the 19th century. Originally a Peruvian city with a large Chilean population it was ceded to Chile
Chile
as result of War of the Pacific (1879–1883). Today it is one of only two free ports of Chile
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Saltpetre
POTASSIUM NITRATE is a chemical compound with the chemical formula K N O 3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−, and is therefore an alkali metal nitrate . It occurs as a mineral niter and is a natural solid source of nitrogen . Potassium
Potassium
nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as SALTPETER or SALTPETRE. Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers , tree stump removal, rocket propellants and fireworks . It is one of the major constituents of gunpowder (black powder) and has been used since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
as a food preservative
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Pampa Del Tamarugal
PAMPA DEL TAMARUGAL ("Plateau of the Tamarugal") is a vast plain encompassing a significant portion of the Norte Grande , Chile
Chile
, and originally named for the Prosopis tamarugo trees that used to cover its surface. It is located between the parallels 19°30’ and 22°15’ south latitude and is considered part of the Atacama Desert . It is bounded on the west by the Chilean Coastal Range and on the east by the western slopes of the Andes
Andes
. The plain occupies a surface area of 12,500 km² with an average elevation of 1100 m. TOURISMAmong the major tourist attractions in the Pampa del Tamarugal are the world heritage site Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works , the town of La Tirana , and the Pampa del Tamarugal National Reserve . SEE ALSO * Pulpería REFERENCES * ^ A B Robertson, A.G
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Pacific Coast
A country's PACIFIC COAST is the part of its coast bordering the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. CONTENTS* 1 Geography * 1.1 The Americas
Americas
* 1.2 Asia
Asia
* 1.3 Oceania
Oceania
* 2 External links GEOGRAPHYTHE AMERICASCountries on the western side of the Americas
Americas
have a Pacific coast
Pacific coast
as their western border
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Köppen Climate Classification
KöPPEN CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the KöPPEN–GEIGER CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM. The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad)
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Peru
Coordinates : 10°S 76°W / 10°S 76°W / -10; -76 Republic
Republic
of Peru República del Perú (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union" ANTHEM: Himno Nacional del Perú (Spanish) National Anthem of Peru NATIONAL SEAL : Gran Sello del Estado (Spanish) Great Seal of the State Location of
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Sodium Nitrate
SODIUM NITRATE is the chemical compound with the formula Na N O 3. This alkali metal nitrate salt is also known as Chile
Chile
saltpeter (because large deposits of this salt can be found in Chile) to distinguish it from ordinary saltpeter, potassium nitrate . The mineral form is also known as nitratine , nitratite or soda niter . Sodium
Sodium
nitrate is a white solid very soluble in water . It is a readily available source of the nitrate anion (NO3−), which is useful in several reactions carried out on industrial scales for the production of fertilizers , pyrotechnics and smoke bombs , glass and pottery enamels , food preservatives (esp. meats), and solid rocket propellant . It has been mined extensively for these purposes
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Ramon Castilla
RAMóN CASTILLA Y MARQUESADO (31 August 1797 – 30 May 1867) was a Peruvian caudillo who served as President of Peru three times as well as the Interim President of Peru (Revolution Self-proclaimed President) in 1863. His earliest prominent appearance in Peruvian history began with his participation in a commanding role of the army of the Libertadores that helped Peru become an independent nation. Later, he led the country when the economy boomed due to the exploitation of guano deposits. Castilla's governments are remembered for having abolished slavery and modernized the state. He assumed the presidency for the first time after general Domingo Nieto 's death for a short period in 1844, then in 1845 until 1851, again from 1855 to 1862 and, finally, during a brief period in 1863
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Chamber Of Deputies Of Chile
GOVERNMENT (NEW MAJORITY ) (67) Christian Democratic (20) Socialist (15) Party for Democracy (14) Communist (6) Social Democrat Radical (6) Citizen Left
Citizen Left
(1) New Majority\'s Independents (5) OPPOSITION ( Chile Vamos
Chile Vamos
) (47
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Moment Magnitude Scale
The MOMENT MAGNITUDE SCALE (abbreviated as MMS; denoted as MW or M) is used by seismologists to measure the size of earthquakes . The scale was developed in the 1970s to succeed the 1930s-era Richter magnitude scale (ML). Even though the formulae are different, the new scale retains a similar continuum of magnitude values to that defined by the older one. Under suitable assumptions, as with the Richter magnitude scale, an increase of one step on this logarithmic scale corresponds to a 101.5 (about 32) times increase in the amount of energy released, and an increase of two steps corresponds to a 103 (1,000) times increase in energy. Thus, an earthquake of Mw of 7.0 releases about 32 times as much energy as one of 6.0 and 1,000 times that of 5.0. The moment magnitude is based on the seismic moment of the earthquake, which is equal to the shear modulus of the rock near the fault multiplied by the average amount of slip on the fault and the size of the area that slipped
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Potassium Nitrate
POTASSIUM NITRATE is a chemical compound with the chemical formula K N O 3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−, and is therefore an alkali metal nitrate . It occurs as a mineral niter and is a natural solid source of nitrogen . Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as SALTPETER or SALTPETRE. Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers , tree stump removal, rocket propellants and fireworks . It is one of the major constituents of gunpowder (black powder) and has been used since the Middle Ages as a food preservative
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Charles Darwin
CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN, FRS FRGS FLS FZS (/ˈdɑːrwɪn/ ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist , geologist and biologist , best known for his contributions to the science of evolution . He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors and, in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace , introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection , in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding . Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species , overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species . By the 1870s, the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), commonly referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME in speech, and known as SUMMER TIME in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s . DST is generally not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it
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Viceroyalty Of Peru
The VICEROYALTY OF PERU (Spanish: Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima
Lima
. The Viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. The Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil
Brazil
across the meridian established by the Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
. The treaty was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal
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