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Ionic Bonding
Ionic bonding
Ionic bonding
is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds. The ions are atoms that have gained one or more electrons (known as anions, which are negatively charged) and atoms that have lost one or more electrons (known as cations, which are positively charged). This transfer of electrons is known as electrovalence in contrast to covalence. In the simplest case, the cation is a metal atom and the anion is a nonmetal atom, but these ions can be of a more complex nature, e.g. molecular ions like NH4+ or SO42−
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Sodium
Sodium
Sodium
is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Sodium
Sodium
is an alkali metal, being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged ion—the Na+ cation. Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but must be prepared from compounds. Sodium
Sodium
is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite, and rock salt (NaCl)
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Sodium Chloride
Sodium
Sodium
chloride /ˌsoʊdiəm ˈklɔːraɪd/,[2] also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium
Sodium
chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In its edible form of table salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses
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Ionization Energy
The ionization energy (IE) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation. It is quantitatively expressed in symbols asX + energy → X+ + e−where X is any atom or molecule capable of being ionized, X+ is that atom or molecule with an electron removed, and e− is the removed electron. This is an endothermic process. Generally, the closer the electrons are to the nucleus of the atom, the higher the atom's ionization energy. The units for ionization energy are different in physics and chemistry. In physics, the unit is the amount of energy required to remove a single electron from a single atom or molecule: expressed as an electron volt
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Electron Affinity
In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.[1]X + e− → X− + energyIn solid state physics, the electron affinity for a surface is defined somewhat differently (see below).Contents1 Measurement and use of electron affinity1.1 Sign convention2 Electron affinities
Electron affinities
of the elements 3 Molecular electron affinities 4 "Electron affinity" as defined in solid state physics 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksMeasurement and use of electron affinity[edit] This property is measured for atoms and molecules in the gaseous state only, since in a solid or liquid state their energy levels would be changed by contact with other atoms or molecules. A list of the electron affinities was used by Robert S. Mulliken
Robert S

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Noble Gases
Legendprimordial elementelement by radioactive decay Atomic number
Atomic number
color: red=gasv t eThe noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity. The six noble gases that occur naturally are helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon (Rn). Oganesson
Oganesson
(Og) is variously predicted to be a noble gas as well or to break the trend due to relativistic effects; its chemistry has not yet been investigated. For the first six periods of the periodic table, the noble gases are exactly the members of group 18. Noble gases are typically highly unreactive except when under particular extreme conditions. The inertness of noble gases makes them very suitable in applications where reactions are not wanted
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S-block
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. The term appears to have been first used by Charles Janet.[1] The respective highest-energy electrons in each element in a block belong to the same atomic orbital type
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P-block
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. The term appears to have been first used by Charles Janet.[1] The respective highest-energy electrons in each element in a block belong to the same atomic orbital type
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D-block
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. The term appears to have been first used by Charles Janet.[1] The respective highest-energy electrons in each element in a block belong to the same atomic orbital type
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F-block
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. The term appears to have been first used by Charles Janet.[1] The respective highest-energy electrons in each element in a block belong to the same atomic orbital type
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Crystallographic Lattice
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.[3] Ordered structures occur from the intrinsic nature of the constituent particles to form symmetric patterns that repeat along the principal directions of three-dimensional space in matter. The smallest group of particles in the material that constitutes the repeating pattern is the unit cell of the structure. The unit cell completely defines the symmetry and structure of the entire crystal lattice, which is built up by repetitive translation of the unit cell along its principal axes. The repeating patterns are said to be located at the points of the Bravais lattice. The lengths of the principal axes, or edges, of the unit cell and the angles between them are the lattice constants, also called lattice parameters
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Table Salt
Table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Salt
Salt
is present in vast quantities in seawater, where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per litre, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt
Salt
is essential for life in general, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Salt
Salt
is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation. Some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 8,000 years ago, when people living in the area of present-day Romania boiled spring water to extract salts; a salt-works in China dates to approximately the same period
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Chlorine
Chlorine
Chlorine
is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine
Chlorine
is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity, behind only oxygen and fluorine. The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride (common salt), has been known since ancient times. Around 1630, chlorine gas was first synthesised in a chemical reaction, but not recognised as a fundamentally important substance. Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
wrote a description of chlorine gas in 1774, supposing it to be an oxide of a new element
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Alkali Metals
Legendprimordialelement by radioactive decay Atomic number
Atomic number
color: black=solidv t eThe alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),[note 1] rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs),[note 2] and francium (Fr). This group lies in the s-block of the periodic table of elements as all alkali metals have their outermost electron in an s-orbital: this shared electron configuration results in their having very similar characteristic properties. Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of group trends in properties in the periodic table, with elements exhibiting well-characterised homologous behaviour. The alkali metals are all shiny, soft, highly reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure and readily lose their outermost electron to form cations with charge +1
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Lithium
Lithium
Lithium
(from Greek: λίθος, translit. lithos, lit. 'stone') is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil. When cut open, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. It never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals which were once the main source of lithium
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Lithium Fluoride
Lithium
Lithium
fluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiF. It is a colorless solid, that transitions to white with decreasing crystal size. Although odorless, lithium fluoride has a bitter-saline taste. Its structure is analogous to that of sodium chloride, but it is much less soluble in water. It is mainly used as a component of molten salts.[2] Formation of LiF from the elements releases one of the highest energy per mass of reactants, only second to that of BeO.Contents1 Manufacturing 2 Applications2.1 In molten salts 2.2 Optics 2.3 Radiation detectors 2.4 Nuclear reactors 2.5 Cathode for PLED
PLED
and OLEDs 2.6 Natural occurrence3 ReferencesManufacturing[edit] LiF is prepared from lithium hydroxide or lithium carbonate with hydrogen fluoride.[3] Applications[edit] In molten salts[edit] Fluorine
Fluorine
is produced by the electrolysis of molten potassium bifluoride
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