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Ionian Islands
The IONIAN ISLANDS ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
, Katharevousa : Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi; Italian : Isole Ionie) are a group of islands in Greece . They are traditionally called the HEPTANESE, i.e. "the Seven Islands" (Greek : Ἑπτάνησα, Heptanēsa or Ἑπτάνησος, Heptanēsos; Italian : Eptaneso), but the group includes many smaller islands as well as the seven principal ones
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Omicron
OMICRON (uppercase Ο, lowercase ο, literally "small o": Όμικρον, o mikron, micron meaning 'small' in contrast to omega ) is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 70. This letter is derived from the Phoenician letter ayin . In classical Greek , omicron represented the sound in contrast to omega and ου . In modern Greek , omicron represents the mid back rounded vowel /o/. Letters that arose from omicron include Roman O and Cyrillic O . The upper-case letter of omicron (O) was originally used in mathematics as a symbol for Big O notation (representing a function's asymptotic growth rate), but has fallen out of favor because omicron is indistinguishable from the Latin letter O and easily confused with the digit zero (0)
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Archipelago
An ARCHIPELAGO (/ɑːrkɪˈpɛləɡoʊ/ ( listen ) ark-i-PEL-ə-goh ), sometimes called an ISLAND GROUP or ISLAND CHAIN, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands , or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands. The word archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι- – arkhi- ("chief") and πέλαγος – pélagos ("sea") through the Italian arcipelago. In Italian , possibly following a tradition of antiquity , the ARCHIPELAGO (from medieval Greek * ἀρχιπέλαγος and Latin archipelagus) was the proper name for the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
and, later, usage shifted to refer to the Aegean Islands (since the sea is remarkable for its large number of islands). CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links TYPESArchipelagos may be found isolated in large amounts of water or neighbouring a large land mass
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Ottoman Empire
The OTTOMAN EMPIRE (/ˈɒtəmən/ ; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye ), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the TURKISH EMPIRE or simply TURKEY, was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province ) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman . After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe
Europe
, and with the conquest of the Balkans
Balkans
, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
by Mehmed the Conqueror
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Venice
VENICE (/ˈvɛnɪs/ , VEN-iss ; Italian : Venezia, ( listen ); Venetian : Venesia, ) is a city in northeastern Italy
Italy
and the capital of the Veneto
Veneto
region . It is situated across a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by bridges, of which there are 400. The islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon , an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice
Venice
are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture , and artwork. The lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. In 2014, 264,579 people resided in Comune
Comune
di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historic city of Venice
Venice
(Centro storico)
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Omega
OMEGA (capital : Ω, lowercase : ω; Greek Ωμέγα) is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
. In the Greek numeric system , it has a value of 800. The word literally means "great O" (ō mega, mega meaning "great"), as opposed to omicron , which means "little O" (o mikron, micron meaning "little"). In phonetic terms, the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Ω is a long open-mid o , comparable to the vowel of British English raw. In Modern Greek
Modern Greek
, Ω represents the mid back rounded vowel /o/, the same sound as omicron . The letter omega is transcribed ō or simply o. As the last letter of the Greek alphabet, Omega
Omega
is often used to denote the last, the end, or the ultimate limit of a set , in contrast to alpha , the first letter of the Greek alphabet
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Penult
PENULT is a linguistics term for the second to last syllable of a word. It is an abbreviation of penultimate, which describes the next-to-last item in a series. The penult follows the antepenult and precedes the ultima . For example, the main stress falls on the penult in such English words as banána, and Mississíppi. Occasionally, "penult" refers to the last word but one of a sentence. The terms are often used in reference to languages like Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
, where the position of the pitch accent or stress of a word only falls on one of the last three syllables and is determined by rules, and sometimes in discussing poetic meter . In certain languages, such as Polish and Welsh , stress is always on the penult
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Italian Language
ITALIAN ( italiano (help ·info ) or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language
Romance language
. By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian , is the closest to Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy
Italy
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, San Marino
San Marino
, Vatican City and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
)
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Katharevousa
KATHAREVOUSA (Greek : Καθαρεύουσα, pronounced , literally "purifying "), is a form of the Modern Greek language
Greek language
conceived in the early 19th century as a compromise between Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and the Demotic Greek of the time. Originally, it was widely used both for literary and official purposes, though seldom in daily language. In the 20th century, it was increasingly adopted for official and formal purposes, until Demotic Greek became the official language of Greece in 1976 by minister of education Georgios Rallis and later in 1982 Andreas Papandreou
Andreas Papandreou
abolished the polytonic system of writing both Demotic and Katharevousa. Katharevousa was conceived by the intellectual and revolutionary leader Adamantios Korais (1748–1833)
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Ionia
IONIA ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἰωνία or Ἰωνίη) is an ancient region of central coastal Anatolia
Anatolia
in present-day Turkey
Turkey
, the region nearest İzmir
İzmir
, which was historically Smyrna
Smyrna
. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period (600–480 BC), settled mainly the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
. Ionian states were identified by tradition and by their use of Eastern Greek
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Antepenult
In linguistics , the ULTIMA is the last syllable of a word, the PENULT is the next-to-last syllable, and the ANTEPENULT is third-from-last syllable. In a word of three syllables, the names of the syllables are antepenult-penult-ultima. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Classical languages * 3 See also * 4 References ETYMOLOGYUltima comes from Latin
Latin
ultima (syllaba) "last (syllable)". Penult and antepenult are abbreviations for paenultima and antepaenultima. Penult has the prefix paene "almost", and antepenult has the prefix ante "before". CLASSICAL LANGUAGESIn Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
, only the three last syllables can be accented. In Latin, a word's stress is dependent on the weight or length of the penultimate syllable; in Greek, the place and type of accent is dependent on the length of the vowel in the ultima
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Achilles
In Greek mythology
Greek mythology
, ACHILLES (/əˈkɪliz/ , uh-KILL-eez ; Greek : Ἀχιλλεύς ) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer
Homer
's Iliad
Iliad
. His mother was the immortal nymph Thetis , and his father, the mortal Peleus , was the king of the Myrmidons . Achilles' most notable feat during the Trojan War was the slaying of the Trojan hero Hector outside the gates of Troy
Troy
. Although the death of Achilles
Achilles
is not presented in the Iliad, other sources concur that he was killed near the end of the Trojan War by Paris , who shot him in the heel with an arrow
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Io (mythology)
IO (/ˈaɪ.oʊ/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἰώ ) was, in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
, one of the mortal lovers of Zeus
Zeus
. She was an ancestor of many kings and heroes such as: Perseus
Perseus
, Cadmus
Cadmus
, Heracles
Heracles
, Minos
Minos
, Lynceus , Cepheus , and Danaus
Danaus
. The astronomer Simon Marius named a moon of Jupiters after Io in 1614
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Ancient Greek
The ANCIENT GREEK language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
( Koine Greek
Koine Greek
, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Achilleion (Corfu)
ACHILLEION (Greek : Αχίλλειο or Αχίλλειον) is a palace built in Gastouri, Corfu
Corfu
by Empress (German : Kaiserin) of Austria Elisabeth of Bavaria , also known as Sisi, after a suggestion by Austrian Consul Alexander von Warsberg. Elisabeth was a woman obsessed with beauty, and very powerful, but tragically vulnerable since the loss of her only son, Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria in the Mayerling Incident in 1889. A year later in 1890, she built a summer palace in the region of Gastouri (Γαστούρι), now the municipality of Achilleion , about ten kilometres to the south of the city of Corfu. The palace was designed with the mythical hero Achilles as its central theme . Corfu
Corfu
was Elizabeth's favourite vacation place and she built the palace because she admired Greece and its language and culture
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