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Invasive Species In New Zealand
A number of introduced species , some of which have become invasive species , have been added to New Zealand
New Zealand
's native flora and fauna. Both deliberate and accidental introductions have been made from the time of the first human settlement, with several waves of Polynesian people at some time before the year 1300, followed by Europeans after 1769 . Almost without exception, the introduced species have been detrimental to the native flora and fauna but some, such as farmed sheep and cows and the clover upon which they feed, now form a large part of the economy of New Zealand
New Zealand
. Registers, lists and indexes of species that are invasive, potentially invasive, or a threat to agriculture or biodiversity are maintained by Biosecurity New Zealand
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Rook (bird)
The ROOK (Corvus frugilegus) is a member of the family Corvidae
Corvidae
in the passerine order of birds. It was given its binomial name by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, The binomial is from Latin
Latin
; Corvus is for "raven", and frugilegus is Latin
Latin
for "food-gathering", from frux, frugis, "fruit", and legere, "to pick". The English name is ultimately derived from the bird's harsh call. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Distribution and habitat * 3 Behaviour and ecology * 3.1 Diet * 3.2 Breeding * 3.3 Voice * 3.4 Intelligence * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION Rook at the Cafe, Marwell Zoo This species, at 45–47 cm in length, is similar in size to or slightly smaller than the carrion crow , with black feathers often showing a blue or bluish-purple sheen in bright sunlight. The feathers on the head, neck and shoulders are particularly dense and silky
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Mallard
A. p. platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 A. p. domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 A. p. conboschas C. L. Brehm , 1831 (disputed) SYNONYMS Anas
Anas
boschas Linnaeus, 1758 The MALLARD (/ˈmælɑːrd/ or /ˈmælərd/ ) or WILD DUCK (Anas platyrhynchos) is a dabbling duck that breeds throughout the temperate and subtropical Americas
Americas
, Eurasia
Eurasia
, and North Africa
North Africa
and has been introduced to New Zealand, Australia, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
, and South Africa. This duck belongs to the subfamily Anatinae of the waterfowl family Anatidae
Anatidae
. The male birds (drakes) have a glossy green head and are grey on wings and belly while the females (hens or ducks) have mainly brown-speckled plumage
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Chaffinch
The COMMON CHAFFINCH (Fringilla coelebs), usually known simply as the CHAFFINCH, is a common and widespread small passerine bird in the finch family. The male is brightly coloured with a blue-grey cap and rust-red underparts. The female is much duller in colouring, but both sexes have two contrasting white wing bars and white sides to the tail. The male bird has a strong voice and sings from exposed perches to attract a mate. The chaffinch breeds in much of Europe, across Asia to Siberia and in northwest Africa. The female builds a nest with a deep cup in the fork of a tree. The clutch is typically four or five eggs, which hatch in about 13 days. The chicks fledge in around 14 days, but are fed by both adults for several weeks after leaving the nest. Outside the breeding season, chaffinches form flocks in open countryside and forage for seeds on the ground. During the breeding season, they forage on trees for invertebrates, especially caterpillars, and feed these to their young
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Greenfinch
See text SYNONYMS Chloris Cuvier, 1800 (but see text ) Chloris C.L.Brehm, 1856 (non Cuvier, 1800: preoccupied) Chloris A.E.Brehm, 1857 (non Cuvier, 1800: preoccupied) CHLORIS is a genus of small passerine birds, the GREENFINCHES, in the subfamily Carduelinae within the Fringillidae . The species have a Eurasian
Eurasian
distribution except for the European greenfinch
European greenfinch
that also occurs in North Africa
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Common Redpoll
The COMMON REDPOLL (Acanthis flammea) is a species of bird in the finch family. It breeds somewhat further south than the Arctic redpoll , also in habitats with thickets or shrubs. CONTENTS* 1 Taxonomy * 1.1 Subspecies * 2 Description * 3 Similar species * 4 Behaviour * 5 References * 6 External links TAXONOMYThe common redpoll was listed in 1758 by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae under the binomial name Fringilla flammea. The current genus name Acanthis is from the Ancient Greek akanthis, a name for a small now-unidentifiable bird, and flammea is the Latin for "flame-coloured". The common redpoll was previously placed in the genus Carduelis . Molecular phylogenetic studies showed that the Arctic and common redpolls formed a distinct lineage , so the two species were grouped together in the resurrected genus Acanthis . SUBSPECIESThe nominate subspecies A. f
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Common Myna
Acridotheres tristis melanosternus Acridotheres tristis naumanni Acridotheres tristis tristis Acridotheres tristis tristoides Distribution of the common myna. Native distribution in blue, introduced in red.The COMMON MYNA/INDIAN MYNAH (Acridotheres tristis), sometimes spelled MYNAH, also sometimes known as "Indian myna", is a member of the family Sturnidae (starlings and mynas) native to Asia. An omnivorous open woodland bird with a strong territorial instinct, the myna has adapted extremely well to urban environments. The range of the common myna is increasing at such a rapid rate that in 2000 the IUCN Species Survival Commission declared it one of the world's most invasive species and one of only three birds in the top 100 species that pose an impact to biodiversity, agriculture and human interests. In particular, the species poses a serious threat to the ecosystems of Australia where it was named "THE MOST IMPORTANT PEST/PROBLEM"
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Lampropholis Delicata
The DELICATE SKINK, DARK-FLECKED GARDEN SUN SKINK, GARDEN SKINK or PLAGUE SKINK (LAMPROPHOLIS DELICATA) is a skink of the subfamily Lygosominae , originally from Eastern Australia . In its native range and in New Zealand it is also known as the RAINBOW SKINK, a term that usually refers to the African Trachylepis margaritifera , also a member of the Lygosominae. It was accidentally introduced to New Zealand in the early 1960s. It is the only introduced reptile in New Zealand to successfully establish a wild population. It is found in several parts of the North Island, and occupies similar habitats to the native copper skink (Cyclodina aenea). The delicate skink is considered a pest species in New Zealand, as they reproduce much more rapidly than native lizards, and compete with other native lizards and mammals for food and habitat. They prey on many native invertebrates in the area as well
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Introduced Species
An INTRODUCED SPECIES (ALIEN SPECIES, EXOTIC SPECIES, NON-INDIGENOUS SPECIES, or NON-NATIVE SPECIES) is a species living outside its native distributional range , which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental. Non-native species can have various effects on the local ecosystem. Introduced species
Introduced species
that become established and spread beyond the place of introduction are called invasive species . The impact of introduced species is highly variable. Some have a negative effect on a local ecosystem, while other introduced species may have no negative effect or only minor impact. Some species have been introduced intentionally to combat pests. They are called biocontrols and may be regarded as beneficial as an alternative to pesticides in agriculture for example. In some instances the potential for being beneficial or detrimental in the long run remains unknown
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Kaimanawa Horse
KAIMANAWA HORSES are a population of feral horses in New Zealand that are descended from domestic horses released in the 19th and 20th centuries. They are known for their hardiness and quiet temperament. The New Zealand government strictly controls the population to protect the habitat in which they live, which includes several endangered species of plants. The varying heritage gives the breed a wide range of heights, body patterns and colours. They are usually well-muscled, sure-footed and tough. Horses were first reported in the Kaimanawa Range in 1876, although the first horses had been brought into New Zealand in 1814. The feral herds grew as horses escaped and were released from sheep stations and cavalry bases. Members of the herd were recaptured by locals for use as riding horses, as well as being caught for their meat, hair and hides
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House Mouse
The HOUSE MOUSE (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia , characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail. It is one of the most numerous species of the genus Mus . Although a wild animal , the house mouse mainly lives in association with humans. The house mouse has been domesticated as the pet or fancy mouse , and as the laboratory mouse , which is one of the most important model organisms in biology and medicine. The complete mouse reference genome was sequenced in 2002. Laboratory mice derived from the house mouse are by far the most common mammalian species used in genetically engineered models for scientific research
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Wallaby
A WALLABY is a small- or mid-sized macropod found in Australia
Australia
and New Guinea
New Guinea
. They belong to the same taxonomic family as kangaroos and sometimes the same genus , but kangaroos are specifically categorised into the six largest species of the family. The term wallaby is an informal designation generally used for any macropod that is smaller than a kangaroo or wallaroo that has not been designated otherwise. There are 11 species of brush wallabies (g. Macropus, s.g. Protemnodon). Their head and body length is 45 to 105 cm and the tail is 33 to 75 cm long. The six named species of rock-wallabies (g. Petrogale) live among rocks, usually near water; two species are endangered. The two species of hare-wallabies (g
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Yellowhammer
The YELLOWHAMMER ( Emberiza citrinella) is a passerine bird in the bunting family that is native to Eurasia and introduced to New Zealand , Australia
Australia
, the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
, and South Africa
South Africa
. Most European birds remain in the breeding range year-round, but the eastern subspecies is partially migratory , with much of the population wintering further south. The male yellowhammer has a bright yellow head, streaked brown back, chestnut rump and yellow underparts. Other plumages are duller versions of the same pattern. The yellowhammer is common in open areas with some scrubs or trees, and forms small flocks in winter. It has a characteristic song with an "A little bit of bread and no cheese" rhythm. The song is very similar to that of its closest relative, the pine bunting , with which it interbreeds
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Cirl Bunting
The CIRL BUNTING (/ˈsɜːrl/ SURL ), Emberiza cirlus, is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a group now separated by most modern authors from the finches , Fringillidae. It breeds across southern Europe , on the Mediterranean islands and in north Africa . It is a resident of these warmer areas, and does not migrate in winter. It is common in all sorts of open areas with some scrub or trees, but has a preference for sunny slopes. Changes in agricultural practice have affected this species very adversely at the northern fringes of its range, and in England , where it once occurred over much of the south of the country, it is now restricted to south Devon . The cirl bunting is the mascot on the signs for the village of Stokeinteignhead . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 English population * 3.1 History * 3.2 Conservation * 4 References * 5 External links ETYMOLOGYThe genus name Emberiza is from Old German Embritz, a bunting
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Catfish
– Extant families - Ailiidae Akysidae Amblycipitidae Amphiliidae Anchariidae Ariidae
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Brown Trout
Salmo trutta morpha trutta Salmo trutta morpha fario Salmo trutta morpha lacustris SYNONYMS previous scientific names * Trutta fluviatilis (Duhamel, 1771) Trutta salmonata (Rutty, 1772) Fario trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) Salmo trutta trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) Trutta trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) Salmo fario
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