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Interplanetary Medium
The INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM is the material which fills the Solar System , and through which all the larger Solar System
Solar System
bodies, such as planets , dwarf planets , asteroids , and comets , move. CONTENTS * 1 Composition and physical characteristics * 2 Extent of the interplanetary medium * 3 Interaction with planets * 4 Observable phenomena of the interplanetary medium * 5 History * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICSThe interplanetary medium includes interplanetary dust , cosmic rays and hot plasma from the solar wind . The temperature of the interplanetary medium varies
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Zodiacal Light
ZODIACAL LIGHT is a faint, diffuse , and roughly triangular white glow visible in the night sky that appears to extend from the vicinity of the Sun
Sun
along the ecliptic or zodiac . It is caused by sunlight scattered by space dust in the zodiacal cloud . It is best seen during twilight after sunset in spring and before sunrise in autumn , when the zodiac is at a steep angle to the horizon. However, the glow is so faint that moonlight and/or light pollution outshine it, rendering it invisible. The zodiacal light decreases in intensity with distance from the Sun, but in naturally dark skies, it is visible as a band completely around the ecliptic. In fact, the zodiacal light covers the entire sky and is largely responsible for the total natural skylight on a moonless, clear night. Another phenomenon—a faint, but slightly brighter, oval glow—directly opposite of the Sun
Sun
is the gegenschein
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Ecliptic
The ECLIPTIC is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun
Sun
appears to follow over the course of a year ; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system . The term also refers to the plane of this path, which is coplanar with Earth\'s orbit around the Sun
Sun
(and hence the Sun's apparent orbit around Earth
Earth
). The ecliptic is not normally noticeable from Earth's surface because Earth
Earth
rotates , carrying the observer through the cycles of sunrise and sunset , which obscure the Sun's apparent motion against the background of fixed stars
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Dust
DUST is fine particles of matter. It generally consists of particles in the atmosphere that come from various sources such as soil, dust lifted by weather (an aeolian process ), volcanic eruptions , and pollution . Dust
Dust
in homes, offices, and other human environments contains small amounts of plant pollen , human and animal hairs , textile fibers , paper fibers , minerals from outdoor soil, human skin cells, burnt meteorite particles, and many other materials which may be found in the local environment
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Van Allen Belts
A VAN ALLEN RADIATION BELT is a zone of energetic charged particles , most of which originate from the solar wind that is captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field . The Earth has two such belts and sometimes others may be temporarily created. The discovery of the belts is credited to James Van Allen , and as a result the Earth's belts are known as the VAN ALLEN BELTS. Earth's two main belts extend from an altitude of about 500 to 58,000 kilometers above the surface in which region radiation levels vary. Most of the particles that form the belts are thought to come from solar wind and other particles by cosmic rays . By trapping the solar wind, the magnetic field deflects those energetic particles and protects the Earth's atmosphere from destruction. The belts are located in the inner region of the Earth's magnetosphere . The belts trap energetic electrons and protons . Other nuclei, such as alpha particles , are less prevalent
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Magnetosphere
A MAGNETOSPHERE is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are controlled by that object's magnetic field . The magnetic field near the surface of many astronomical objects resembles that of a dipole . The field lines farther away from the surface can be significantly distorted by the flow of electrically conducting plasma emitted from a nearby star (e.g. the solar wind from the Sun). Planets with a magnetosphere, like Earth, are capable of mitigating or blocking the effects of cosmic radiation
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Moon
The MOON is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth
Earth
, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite . It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary ). Following Jupiter
Jupiter
's satellite Io , the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
Earth
. The most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon
Moon
formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth
Earth
and a Mars
Mars
-sized body called Theia
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Regolith
REGOLITH is a layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial material covering solid rock . It includes dust , soil , broken rock, and other related materials and is present on Earth
Earth
, the Moon
Moon
, Mars
Mars
, some asteroids , and other terrestrial planets and moons . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology
Etymology
* 2 Earth
Earth
* 3 Moon
Moon
* 4 Mars
Mars
* 5 Asteroids * 6 Titan * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term regolith combines two Greek words: rhegos (ῥῆγος), "blanket", and lithos (λίθος), "rock". The American geologist George P. Merrill first defined the term in 1897, writing: In places this covering is made up of material originating through rock-weathering or plant growth in situ
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X-ray
X-RAYS make up X-RADIATION, a form of electromagnetic radiation . Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers , corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV . X-ray
X-ray
wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays . In many languages, X-radiation is referred to with terms meaning RöNTGEN RADIATION, after the German scientist Wilhelm Röntgen , who usually is credited as its discoverer, and who had named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation. Spelling of X-ray(s) in the English language includes the variants x-ray(s), xray(s), and X ray(s)
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Robert Boyle
ROBERT WILLIAM BOYLE FRS (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
natural philosopher , chemist , physicist and inventor born in Lismore, County Waterford , Ireland . Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the founders of modern chemistry , and one of the pioneers of modern experimental scientific method . He is best known for Boyle\'s law , which describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system . Among his works, The Sceptical Chymist is seen as a cornerstone book in the field of chemistry. He was a devout and pious Anglican
Anglican
and is noted for his writings in theology
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Vacuum
VACUUM is space devoid of matter . The word stems from the Latin adjective vacuus for "vacant" or "void". An approximation to such vacuum is a region with a gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure . Physicists often discuss ideal test results that would occur in a perfect vacuum, which they sometimes simply call "vacuum" or FREE SPACE, and use the term PARTIAL VACUUM to refer to an actual imperfect vacuum as one might have in a laboratory or in space . In engineering and applied physics on the other hand, vacuum refers to any space in which the pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure. The Latin term IN VACUO is used to describe an object that is surrounded by a vacuum. The quality of a partial vacuum refers to how closely it approaches a perfect vacuum. Other things equal, lower gas pressure means higher-quality vacuum. For example, a typical vacuum cleaner produces enough suction to reduce air pressure by around 20%. Much higher-quality vacuums are possible
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Bibcode
The BIBCODE (also known as the REFCODE) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references. CONTENTS * 1 Adoption * 2 Format * 3 Examples * 4 See also * 5 References ADOPTIONThe Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System who coined and prefer the term "bibcode". FORMATThe code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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Syun-Ichi Akasofu
SYUN-ICHI AKASOFU (赤祖父 俊一, Akasofu Shun'ichi, born December 4, 1930, Saku , Nagano , Japan) is the founding director of the International Arctic Research Center of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), serving in that position from the center's establishment in 1998 until January 2007. Previously he had been director of the university's Geophysical Institute from 1986. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Selected publications * 3 Awards and honors * 4 References * 5 External links BACKGROUNDAkasofu earned a B.S. and a M.S. in geophysics at Tohoku University , Sendai , Japan, in 1953 and 1957, respectively. He earned a Ph.D in geophysics at UAF in 1961. Within the framework of his Ph.D. thesis he studied the aurora . His scientific adviser was Sydney Chapman . Akasofu has been a professor of geophysics at UAF since 1964
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