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Interplanetary Medium
The interplanetary medium is the material which fills the Solar System, and through which all the larger Solar System
Solar System
bodies, such as planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, move.Contents1 Composition and physical characteristics 2 Extent of the interplanetary medium 3 Interaction with planets 4 Observable phenomena of the interplanetary medium 5 History 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksComposition and physical characteristics[edit] The interplanetary medium includes interplanetary dust, cosmic rays and hot plasma from the solar wind. The temperature of the interplanetary medium varies
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Robert Boyle
Robert William Boyle FRS[5] (/bɔɪl/; 25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish[6] natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor. Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the founders of modern chemistry, and one of the pioneers of modern experimental scientific method. He is best known for Boyle's law,[7] which describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system.[8] Among his works, The Sceptical Chymist
The Sceptical Chymist
is seen as a cornerstone book in the field of chemistry
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Regolith
Regolith
Regolith
( /ˈrɛɡəlɪθ/)[1] is a layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock. It includes dust, soil, broken rock, and other related materials and is present on Earth, the Moon, Mars, some asteroids, and other terrestrial planets and moons.Contents1 Etymology 2 Earth 3 Moon 4 Mars 5 Asteroids 6 Titan 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The term regolith combines two Greek words: rhegos (ῥῆγος), "blanket", and lithos (λίθος), "rock".[2][3][4] The American geologist George P. Merrill first defined the term in 1897, writing:In places this covering is made up of material originating through rock-weathering or plant growth in situ. In other instances it is of fragmental and more or less decomposed matter drifted by wind, water or ice from other sources
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X-ray
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray
X-ray
wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays
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Magnetosphere
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.[1][2] It is created by planets having active hot iron and nickel or metallic cores, whose motion generated a planetary magnetic field, but such fields can also occur in stars by the interactions of plasma. Near the surfaces of many astronomical objects, the magnetic field resembles a magnetic dipole, where field lines extending farther away from the surface can be significantly distorted flowing electrically conducting plasma as emitted from the Sun or a nearby star. e.g. the solar wind.[3][4] Planets having active magnetospheres, like the Earth, are capable of mitigating or blocking the effects of solar radiation or cosmic radiation, that also protects all living organisms from potentially detrimental and dangerous consequences
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Van Allen Belts
A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind that are captured by and held around the planet by that planet's magnetic field. The Earth has two such belts and sometimes others may be temporarily created. The discovery of the belts is credited to James Van Allen, and as a result the Earth's belts are known as the Van Allen belts. Earth's two main belts extend from an altitude of about 500 to 58,000 kilometers[1] above the surface in which region radiation levels vary. Most of the particles that form the belts are thought to come from solar wind and other particles by cosmic rays.[2] By trapping the solar wind, the magnetic field deflects those energetic particles and protects the Earth's atmosphere from destruction. The belts are located in the inner region of the Earth's magnetosphere. The belts trap energetic electrons and protons. Other nuclei, such as alpha particles, are less prevalent
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Zodiacal Light
Zodiacal light
Zodiacal light
is a faint, diffuse, and roughly triangular white glow visible in the night sky that appears to extend from the vicinity of the Sun
Sun
along the ecliptic or zodiac.[1] Sunlight
Sunlight
scattered by interplanetary dust in the zodiacal cloud causes this phenomenon. Zodiacal light
Zodiacal light
is best seen during twilight after sunset in spring and before sunrise in autumn, when the zodiac is at a steep angle to the horizon. However, the glow is so faint that moonlight and/or light pollution outshine it, rendering it invisible. The zodiacal light decreases in intensity with distance from the Sun, but in naturally dark skies, it is visible as a band completely around the ecliptic. In fact, the zodiacal light covers the entire sky and is largely responsible[2] for the total natural skylight on a moonless, clear night
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Ecliptic
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun appears to follow over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system
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Dust
Dust
Dust
are fine particles of matter.[1] It generally consists of particles in the atmosphere that come from various sources such as soil, dust lifted by weather (an aeolian process), volcanic eruptions, and pollution
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Vacuum
Vacuum
Vacuum
is space devoid of matter. The word stems from the Latin adjective vacuus for "vacant" or "void". An approximation to such vacuum is a region with a gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure.[1] Physicists often discuss ideal test results that would occur in a perfect vacuum, which they sometimes simply call "vacuum" or free space, and use the term partial vacuum to refer to an actual imperfect vacuum as one might have in a laboratory or in space. In engineering and applied physics on the other hand, vacuum refers to any space in which the pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure.[2] The Latin term in vacuo is used to describe an object that is surrounded by a vacuum. The quality of a partial vacuum refers to how closely it approaches a perfect vacuum. Other things equal, lower gas pressure means higher-quality vacuum
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Astronomical Unit
The astronomical unit (symbol: au,[1][2][3] ua,[4] or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth
Earth
to the Sun. However, that distance varies as Earth
Earth
orbits the Sun, from a maximum (aphelion) to a minimum (perihelion) and back again once a year. Originally conceived as the average of Earth's aphelion and perihelion, it was defined exactly as 7011149597870700000♠149597870700 metres or about 150 million kilometres (93 million miles) since 2012.[5] The astronomical unit is used primarily for measuring distances within the Solar System
Solar System
or around other stars
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Aether (classical Element)
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (Greek: αἰθήρ aithēr[1]), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.[2] The concept of aether was used in several theories to explain several natural phenomena, such as the traveling of light and gravity
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Charles Augustus Young
Charles Augustus Young
Charles Augustus Young
(December 15, 1834 – January 4, 1908) one of the foremost solar spectroscopist astronomers in the United States, died of pneumonia after a brief illness, at his home in Hanover, New Hampshire, on 4 January 1908. He observed solar eclipses and worked on spectroscopy of the Sun. He observed a solar flare with a spectroscope on 3 August 1872, and also noted that it coincided with a magnetic storm on Earth. Graduated from Dartmouth in 1853. For two years, he taught classes at Phillips Academy
Phillips Academy
in Andover, Massachusetts. The following year, he studied theological seminary in Andover, while also continuing to teach. In 1857, he became the Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at Western Reserve College, now known as Case Western Reserve University, devoting nine years
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Ludwig Biermann
Ludwig Franz Benedict Biermann (March 13, 1907 in Hamm – January 12, 1986 in München) was a German astronomer, obtaining his Ph.D. from Göttingen University in 1932.[1] He made important contributions to astrophysics and plasma physics, discovering the Biermann battery. He predicted the existence of the solar wind which in 1947 he dubbed "solar corpuscular radiation". He was a visiting scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study in the fall of 1961.[2] He won the Bruce Medal in 1967 and the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1974. Asteroid 73640 Biermann is named in his honor.Contents1 References 2 External links2.1 Awards 2.2 ObituariesReferences[edit]^ Hockey, Thomas (2009). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0
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Syun-Ichi Akasofu
Syun-Ichi Akasofu (赤祖父 俊一, Akasofu Shun'ichi, born December 4, 1930, Saku, Nagano, Japan) is the founding director of the International Arctic Research Center of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), serving in that position from the center's establishment in 1998 until January 2007. Previously he had been director of the university's Geophysical Institute from 1986.Contents1 Background 2 Selected publications 3 Awards and honors 4 References 5 External linksBackground[edit] Akasofu earned a B.S. and a M.S. in geophysics at Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, in 1953 and 1957, respectively. He earned a Ph.D in geophysics at UAF in 1961. Within the framework of his Ph.D. thesis he studied the aurora. His scientific adviser was Sydney Chapman
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