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Internetwork Packet Exchange
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the network layer protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol suite. IPX is derived from Xerox
Xerox
Network Systems' IDP. It may act as a transport layer protocol as well. The IPX/SPX protocol suite was very popular through the late 1980s into the mid-1990s because it was used by the Novell NetWare network operating system. Because of Novell Netware popularity the IPX became a prominent internetworking protocol. A big advantage of IPX was a small memory footprint of the IPX driver, which was vital for MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
up to the version Windows 95
Windows 95
because of limited size of the conventional memory
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Sequenced Packet Exchange
Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) is the OSI-model Transport layer protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol stack. It is a reliable, connection-oriented protocol, similar to the TCP protocol of the TCP/IP, but it is datagram rather than stream protocol. SPX packet structure[edit] Each SPX packet begins with a header with the following structure:Octets Field1 Connection Control1 Datastream Type2 Source Connection Id2 Destination Connection Id (0xFFFF = unknown)2 Sequence Number2 Acknowledgement Number2 Allocation Number (The number of outstanding receive buffers available)0-534 dataThe Connection Control fields contains 4 single-bit flags:Weight Meaning0x10 End-of-message0x20 Attention0x40 Acknowledgement Required0x80 System PacketThe Datastream Type serves to close the SPX connection
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Netmask
A subnetwork or subnet is a logical subdivision of an IP network.[1] The practice of dividing a network into two or more networks is called subnetting. Computers that belong to a subnet are addressed with a common, identical, most-significant bit-group in their IP address. This results in the logical division of an IP address
IP address
into two fields, a network number or routing prefix and the rest field or host identifier. The rest field is an identifier for a specific host or network interface. The routing prefix may be expressed in Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation written as the first address of a network, followed by a slash character (/), and ending with the bit-length of the prefix. For example, 192.168.1.0/24 is the prefix of the Internet
Internet
Protocol version 4 network starting at the given address, having 24 bits allocated for the network prefix, and the remaining 8 bits reserved for host addressing
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Routing Information Protocol
The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the oldest distance-vector routing protocols which employ the hop count as a routing metric. RIP prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from source to destination. The largest number of hops allowed for RIP is 15, which limits the size of networks that RIP can support. RIP implements the split horizon, route poisoning and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated. In RIPv1 router broadcast updates with their routing table every 30 seconds. In the early deployments, routing tables were small enough that the traffic was not significant
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Internet Protocol
The Internet
Internet
Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite
Internet protocol suite
for relaying packets across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet. IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. For this purpose, IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information. Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf
Vint Cerf
and Bob Kahn in 1974; the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
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Packet Exchange Protocol
Xerox
Xerox
Network Systems (XNS) is a computer networking protocol suite developed by Xerox
Xerox
within the Xerox
Xerox
Network Systems Architecture. It provided general purpose network communications, internetwork routing and packet delivery, and higher level functions such as a reliable stream, and remote procedure calls. XNS predated and influenced the development of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) networking model, and was very influential in local area networking designs during the 1980s. It had little impact on TCP/IP, however, which was designed earlier. XNS was developed by the Xerox
Xerox
Systems Development Department in the early 1980s, who were charged with bringing Xerox
Xerox
Parc's research to market. XNS was based on the earlier (and equally influential) PARC Universal Packet (PUP) suite from the late 1970s
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Routing Table
In computer networking a routing table, or routing information base (RIB), is a data table stored in a router or a networked computer that lists the routes to particular network destinations, and in some cases, metrics (distances) associated with those routes. The routing table contains information about the topology of the network immediately around it. The construction of routing tables is the primary goal of routing protocols. Static routes are entries made in a routing table by non-automatic means and which are fixed rather than being the result of some network topology "discovery" procedure.Contents1 Basics 2 Difficulties with routing tables 3 Contents of routing tables 4 Forwarding table 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksBasics[edit] A routing table uses the same idea that one does when using a map in package delivery. Whenever a node needs to send data to another node on a network, it must first know where to send it
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Routing
Routing
Routing
is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network, or between or across multiple networks. Routing
Routing
is performed for many types of networks, including circuit-switched networks, such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN), and computer networks, such as the Internet. In packet switching networks, routing is the higher-level decision making that directs network packets from their source toward their destination through intermediate network nodes by specific packet forwarding mechanisms. Packet forwarding is the transit of logically addressed network packets from one network interface to another. Intermediate nodes are typically network hardware devices such as routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. General-purpose computers also forward packets and perform routing, although they have no specially optimized hardware for the task
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Address Resolution Protocol
The Address Resolution Protocol
Address Resolution Protocol
(ARP) is a communication protocol used for discovering the link layer address, such as a MAC address, associated with a given network layer address, typically an IPv4 address. This mapping is a critical function in the Internet protocol suite. ARP was defined in 1982 by RFC 826,[1] which is Internet Standard STD 37. ARP has been implemented with many combinations of network and data link layer technologies, such as IPv4, Chaosnet, DECnet and Xerox PARC Universal Packet (PUP) using IEEE 802
IEEE 802
standards, FDDI, X.25, Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM)
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Hexadecimal
In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base 16, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0–9 to represent values zero to nine, and A, B, C, D, E, F (or alternatively a, b, c, d, e, f) to represent values ten to fifteen. Hexadecimal
Hexadecimal
numerals are widely used by computer system designers and programmers. As each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits (bits), it allows a more human-friendly representation of binary-coded values. One hexadecimal digit represents a nibble (4 bits), which is half of an octet or byte (8 bits)
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Bootstrap Protocol
The Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) is a computer networking protocol used in Internet Protocol networks to automatically assign an IP address to network devices from a configuration server. The BOOTP was originally defined in RFC 951. When a computer that is connected to a network is powered up and boots its operating system, the system software broadcasts BOOTP messages onto the network to request an IP address assignment. A BOOTP configuration server assigns an IP address based on the request from a pool of addresses configured by an administrator. BOOTP is implemented using the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as transport protocol, port number 67 is used by the (DHCP) server to receive client requests and port number 68 is used by the client to receive (DHCP) server responses. BOOTP operates only on IPv4 networks. Historically, BOOTP has also been used for Unix-like diskless workstations to obtain the network location of their boot image, in addition to the IP address assignment
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MAC Address
A media access control address (MAC address) of a device is a unique identifier assigned to network interface controllers for communications at the data link layer of a network segment. MAC addresses are used as a network address for most IEEE 802
IEEE 802
network technologies, including Ethernet
Ethernet
and Wi-Fi. In this context, MAC addresses are used in the medium access control protocol sublayer. MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a network interface controller (NIC) and are stored in its hardware, such as the card's read-only memory or some other firmware mechanism. If assigned by the manufacturer, a MAC address
MAC address
usually encodes the manufacturer's registered identification number and may be referred to as the burned-in address (BIA)
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Broadcast Address
A broadcast address is a logical address at which all devices connected to a multiple-access communications network are enabled to receive datagrams. A message sent to a broadcast address may be received by all network-attached hosts. In contrast, a multicast address is used to address a specific group of devices and a unicast address is used to address a single device.Contents1 IP networking 2 Ethernet 3 IPX networking 4 AppleTalk 5 See also 6 ReferencesIP networking[edit] In Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
version 4 (IPv4) networks, broadcast addresses are special values in the host-identification part of an IP address.[1] The all-ones value was established in RFC 919 as the standard broadcast address for networks that support broadcast. This method of using the all-ones address was first proposed by R. Gurwitz and R
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User Datagram Protocol
In computer networking, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite. The protocol was designed by David P. Reed
David P. Reed
in 1980 and formally defined in RFC 768. With UDP, computer applications can send messages, in this case referred to as datagrams, to other hosts on an Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP) network. Prior communications are not required in order to set up communication channels or data paths. UDP uses a simple connectionless communication model with a minimum of protocol mechanism. UDP provides checksums for data integrity, and port numbers for addressing different functions at the source and destination of the datagram. It has no handshaking dialogues, and thus exposes the user's program to any unreliability of the underlying network; There is no guarantee of delivery, ordering, or duplicate protection
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Internet Protocol Suite
The Internet protocol
Internet protocol
suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet
Internet
and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) and the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP). It is occasionally known as the Department of Defense (DoD) model, because the development of the networking method was funded by the United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
through DARPA. The Internet protocol
Internet protocol
suite provides end-to-end data communication specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received
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