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International Refugee Organisation
The International Refugee Organization
International Refugee Organization
(IRO) was an intergovernmental organization founded on 20 April 1946 to deal with the massive refugee problem created by World War II. A Preparatory Commission began operations fourteen months previously. In 1948, the treaty establishing the IRO formally entered into force and the IRO became a United Nations
United Nations
specialized agency. The IRO assumed most of the functions of the earlier United Nations
United Nations
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. In 1952, operations of the IRO ceased, and it was replaced by the Office of the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The Constitution of the International Refugee Organization, adopted by the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly on 15 December 1946, is the founding document of the IRO
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Specialized Agency
Specialized agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations
United Nations
and each other through the coordinating machinery of the United Nations
United Nations
Economic and Social Council at the intergovernmental level, and through the Chief Executives Board for coordination (CEB) at the inter-secretariat level.[1] Specialized agencies may or may not have been originally created by the United Nations, but they are incorporated into the United Nations
United Nations
System by the United Nations
United Nations
Economic and Social Council acting under Articles 57 and 63 of the United Nations
United Nations
Charter. At present the UN has in total 15[2][3][4][notes 1] specialized agencies that carry out various functions on behalf of the UN
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United Nations
The United Nations
United Nations
(UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II
World War II
with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict
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Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
(MIGA) is an international financial institution which offers political risk insurance and credit enhancement guarantees. These guarantees help investors protect foreign direct investments against political and non-commercial risks in developing countries.[1] MIGA is a member of the World Bank Group
World Bank Group
and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. MIGA was established in 1988 as an investment insurance facility to encourage confident investment in developing countries.[2] MIGA is owned and governed by its member states, but has its own executive leadership and staff which carry out its daily operations. Its shareholders are member governments that provide paid-in capital and have the right to vote on its matters. It insures long-term debt and equity investments as well as other assets and contracts with long-term periods
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International Finance Corporation
The International Finance Corporation
Corporation
(IFC) is an international financial institution that offers investment, advisory, and asset-management services to encourage private-sector development in developing countries. The IFC is a member of the World Bank Group
World Bank Group
and is headquartered in Washington, D.C.
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International Development Association
The International Development Association
International Development Association
(IDA) is an international financial institution which offers concessional loans and grants to the world's poorest developing countries. The IDA is a member of the World Bank Group
World Bank Group
and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. It was established in 1960 to complement the existing International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
by lending to developing countries which suffer from the lowest gross national income, from troubled creditworthiness, or from the lowest per capita income
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International Bank For Reconstruction And Development
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(IBRD) is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries. The IBRD is the first of five member institutions that compose the World Bank Group
World Bank Group
and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. It was established in 1944 with the mission of financing the reconstruction of European nations devastated by World War II. The IBRD and its concessional lending arm, the International Development Association, are collectively known as the World Bank
World Bank
as they share the same leadership and staff.[1][2][3] Following the reconstruction of Europe, the Bank's mandate expanded to advancing worldwide economic development and eradicating poverty
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World Bank Group
The World Bank
World Bank
Group (WBG) (French: Groupe de la Banque mondiale)[5] is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries
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United Nations Development Programme
The United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network. Headquartered in New York City, UNDP advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. It provides expert advice, training and grants support to developing countries, with increasing emphasis on assistance to the least developed countries. It promotes technical and investment cooperation among nations. The status of UNDP is that of an executive board within the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly
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United Nations Industrial Development Organization
The United Nations
United Nations
Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), French/Spanish acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria
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World Meteorological Organization
The World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873
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Universal Postal Union
The Universal Postal Union
Universal Postal Union
(UPU, French: Union postale universelle), established by the Treaty of Bern
Bern
of 1874,[1] is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) that coordinates postal policies among member nations, in addition to the worldwide postal system. The UPU contains four bodies consisting of the Congress, the Council of Administration (CA), the Postal Operations Council (POC) and the International Bureau (IB). It also oversees the Telematics and Express Mail
Mail
Service (EMS) cooperatives. Each member agrees to the same terms for conducting international postal duties. The UPU's headquarters are located in Bern, Switzerland.[2] French is the official language of the UPU. English was added as a working language in 1994
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International Telecommunication Union
The International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU; French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (French: Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.[1] The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards
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International Maritime Organization
The International Maritime Organization
International Maritime Organization
(IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982,[3] is a specialised agency of the United Nations
United Nations
responsible for regulating shipping. The IMO was established in Geneva
Geneva
in 1948[4] and came into force ten years later, meeting for the first time in 1959. Headquartered in London, United Kingdom, the IMO currently has 173 Member States and three Associate Members.[3] The IMO's primary purpose is to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping and its remit today includes safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation, maritime security and the efficiency of shipping. IMO is governed by an assembly of members and is financially administered by a council of members elected from the assembly
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International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO French: Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale, OACI), is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth.[2] Its headquarters are located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation, its infrastructure, flight inspection, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation
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International Monetary Fund
The International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world."[1] Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference
Bretton Woods Conference
primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes,[5] it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system. It now plays a central role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises.[6] Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money
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