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International Red Cross And Red Crescent Movement
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide[2] which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering. The movement consists of several distinct organizations that are legally independent from each other, but are united within the movement through common basic principles, objectives, symbols, statutes and governing organisations. The movement's parts are:The International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland, in particular by Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
and Gustave Moynier
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Kingdom Of Württemberg
The Kingdom of Württemberg
Württemberg
(German: Königreich Württemberg; German pronunciation: [ˌkøːnɪkʁai̯ç ˈvʏʁtm̩bɛʁk]) was a German state that existed from 1805 to 1918, located within the area that is now Baden-Württemberg. The kingdom was a continuation of the Duchy of Württemberg, which existed from 1495 to 1805.[1] Prior to 1495, Württemberg
Württemberg
was a County in the former Duchy of Swabia, which had dissolved after the death of Duke Conradin
Conradin
in 1268. The borders of the Kingdom of Württemberg, as defined in 1813, lay between 47°34' and 49°35' north and 8°15' and 10°30' east. The greatest distance north to south comprised 225 kilometres (140 mi) and the greatest east to west was 160 kilometres (99 mi)
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Kingdom Of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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First Geneva Convention
The First Geneva
Geneva
Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, held on 22 August 1864, is the first of four treaties of the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions. It defines "the basis on which rest the rules of international law for the protection of the victims of armed conflicts."[1] After the first treaty was adopted in 1864, it was significantly revised and replaced in 1906, 1929, and finally 1949. It is inextricably linked to the International Committee of the Red Cross, which is both the instigator for the inception and enforcer of the articles in these conventions.Contents1 History 2 Summary of provisions 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksHistory[edit]Henry DunantThe 1864
1864
Geneva
Geneva
Convention was instituted at a critical period in European political and military history
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Swiss Army
The Swiss Armed Forces
Swiss Armed Forces
(German: Schweizer Armee, French: Armée suisse, Italian: Esercito svizzero, Romanisch: Armada svizra) operates on land, in the air, and in international waters. Under the country's militia system, professional soldiers constitute about 5 percent[citation needed] of the military and the rest are conscripts or volunteers aged 19 to 34 (in some cases up to 50). Because of Switzerland's long history of neutrality, the armed forces do not take part in conflicts in other countries, but it does participate in international peacekeeping missions
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Austrian Empire
The Austrian Empire
Empire
(Austrian German: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919 (losing Hungary
Hungary
in 1867) created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire
Empire
and France
France
in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the second largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire
Empire
(621,538 square kilometres [239,977 sq mi]). Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
until the latter's dissolution in 1806
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Grand Duchy Of Baden
The Grand Duchy of Baden
Baden
(German: Großherzogtum Baden) was a state in the southwest German Empire
German Empire
on the east bank of the Rhine. It existed between 1806 and 1918.[1] It came into existence in the 12th century as the Margraviate
Margraviate
of Baden and subsequently split into different lines, which were unified in 1771. It then became the much-enlarged[1] Grand Duchy of Baden
Baden
through the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1803–06 and was a sovereign country until it joined the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871, remaining a Grand Duchy until 1918 when it became part of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
as the Republic of Baden
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Kingdom Of Bavaria
The Kingdom of Bavaria
Bavaria
(German: Königreich Bayern; Austro-Bavarian: Kinereich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria
Electorate of Bavaria
in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria
King of Bavaria
in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph. The crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
to the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
while receiving Aschaffenburg
Aschaffenburg
and Würzburg
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Second French Empire
The French Second Empire
Empire
(French: Second Empire)[1] was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.Contents1 Rule of Napoleon III 2 History2.1 Coup of 1851 2.2 Early reign 2.3 Freedom of the press 2.4 The Union libérale 2.5 Rise of Prussia 2.6 Mobilization of the working classes 2.7 Plebiscite of 1870 2.8 End of the Empire3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further reading6.1 Surveys 6.2 Politics 6.3 Military and diplomatic 6.4 Social and economic 6.5 Historiography7 External linksRule of Napoleon III[edit]Napoléon IIIImperial Standard of Napoléon IIIThe structure of the French government during the Second Empire
Empire
was little changed from the First. But Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government
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Kingdom Of Hanover
The Kingdom of Hanover
Hanover
(German: Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
(known informally as the Electorate of Hanover), and joined with 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation
German Confederation
in June 1815. The kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover, a younger branch of the House of Welf, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1837; a viceroy (usually a younger member of the British Royal Family) handled the administration of the Kingdom. A dynastic split, owing to differences in inheritance law, led to the Kingdom of Hannover receiving its own monarch in 1837
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Grand Duchy Of Hesse
The Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
and by Rhine
Rhine
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein), or the Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen) between 1806 and 1816, was an independent country and member state of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
as of 1806, when the Landgraviate of Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was elevated to a Grand Duchy which it remained until 1918, when the monarchy was overthrown. Hesse
Hesse
lost its independence when it joined the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871
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Kingdom Of The Netherlands
The Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; pronounced [ˈkoːnɪŋkrɛik dɛr ˈneːdərlɑndə(n)] ( listen)), commonly known as the Netherlands,[nb 1] is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe
Western Europe
and with several small islands in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies
West Indies
islands ( Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
and Lesser Antilles). The four parts of the kingdom—the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten—are constituent countries (landen in Dutch) and participate on a basis of equality as partners in the kingdom.[6] In practice, however, most of the kingdom's affairs are administered by the Netherlands—which comprises roughly 98% of the kingdom's land area and population—on behalf of the entire kingdom
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Solferino
Solferino
Solferino
is a small town and comune in the province of Mantua, Lombardy, northern Italy, approximately 10 kilometres (6 mi) south of Lake Garda. It is best known as being close to the site of the Battle of Solferino on 24 June 1859, part of the Second Italian War of Independence. The battle ended with Italo-French capture of the Rocca, the fortress then in Austrian hands. The wounded in the battle were witnessed by the Swiss businessman Jean-Henri Dunant, who had traveled to Italy
Italy
to meet French emperor Napoléon III with the intention of discussing difficulties in conducting business in Algeria, at that time occupied by France. Horrified by the suffering of wounded soldiers left on the battlefield, Dunant completely abandoned the original intent of his trip and for several days he devoted himself to helping with the treatment and care for the wounded
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Kingdom Of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
(German: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia
Prussia
between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium
Belgium
and the Czech Republic.[3] It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire
German Empire
until its dissolution in 1918.[3] Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin. The kings of Prussia
Prussia
were from the House of Hohenzollern
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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Kingdom Of Saxony
The Kingdom of Saxony (German: Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany. The kingdom was formed from the Electorate of Saxony. From 1871 it was part of the German Empire. It became a Free state in the era of Weimar Republic in 1918 after the end of World War I and the abdication of King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony
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