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International Federation For Human Rights
The INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (French : FéDéRATION INTERNATIONALE DES LIGUES DES DROITS DE L\'HOMME; FIDH) is a non-governmental federation for human rights organizations. Founded in 1922, FIDH is the second oldest international human rights organisation worldwide after Anti-Slavery International and brings together 184 member organisations in over 100 countries, as at 2016. FIDH is nonpartisan , nonsectarian , and independent of any government. Its core mandate is to promote respect for all the rights set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

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International Community
The INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world. The term is typically used to imply the existence of a common point of view towards such matters as specific issues of human rights . Activists, politicians, and commentators often use the term in calling for action to be taken; e.g., action against what is in their opinion political repression in a target country. The term is commonly used to imply legitimacy and consensus for a point of view on a disputed issue; e.g., to enhance the credibility of a majority vote in the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
. CRITICISM Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
alleges that the use of the term is used to refer to the United States
United States
and its allies and client states , as well as allies in the media of those states
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World Organisation Against Torture
The WORLD ORGANISATION AGAINST TORTURE (Organisation Mondiale Contre la Torture; OMCT) is the world’s largest coalition of non-governmental organisations fighting against arbitrary detention , torture , summary and extrajudicial executions , forced disappearances and other forms of violence . The global network consists of almost 300 local, national and regional organisations, which share the goal of eradicating torture and fostering respect of human rights for all. The OMCT's Prevention of Torture
Torture
programme helps its members prevent and report torture by strengthening their capacity through the SOS- Torture
Torture
network to use United Nations
United Nations
human rights mechanisms
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Violence Against Women
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN (VAW), also known as GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE, is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women . Sometimes considered a hate crime , this type of violence targets a specific group with the victim's gender as a primary motive. This type of violence is gender-based, meaning that the acts of violence are committed against women expressly because they are women
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Discrimination
In human social affairs , DISCRIMINATION is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong rather than on individual attributes . This includes treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, "in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated"
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Impunity
IMPUNITY means "exemption from punishment or loss or escape from fines". In the international law of human rights , it refers to the failure to bring perpetrators of human rights violations to justice and, as such, itself constitutes a denial of the victims' right to justice and redress . Impunity is especially common in countries that lack a tradition of the rule of law , suffer from corruption or that have entrenched systems of patronage , or where the judiciary is weak or members of the security forces are protected by special jurisdictions or immunities
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NGO Monitor
NGO MONITOR (NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION MONITOR) is a non-governmental organization based in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, which analyzes and reports on the output of the international NGO community from a pro-Israel perspective. It has been characterized as being pro-Israel and as right-wing. NGO Monitor
NGO Monitor
says in its mission statement that it was founded "to promote accountability, and advance a vigorous discussion on the reports and activities of humanitarian NGOs in the framework of the Arab–Israeli conflict." The organization was founded in 2001 by Gerald M. Steinberg under the auspices of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Center for Public Affairs . NGO Monitor became a legally and financially independent organization in 2007
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Organisation For Economic Co-operation And Development
The ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD; French : Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1960 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy , providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI ) and are regarded as developed countries . OECD is an official United Nations
United Nations
Observer
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United Nations Development Programme
New York City
New York City
(International territory ) HEAD Achim Steiner (Administrator-Designate) PARENT ORGANIZATION ECOSOC WEBSITE www.undp.orgThe UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP) is the United Nations ' global development network. Headquartered in New York City
New York City
, UNDP advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. It provides expert advice, training and grants support to developing countries, with increasing emphasis on assistance to the least developed countries . The status of UNDP is that of an executive board within the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly
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World Trade Organization
The WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade . The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement , signed by 123 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Trade
(GATT), which commenced in 1948. It is the largest international economic organization in the world. The WTO deals with regulation of trade between participating countries by providing a framework for negotiating trade agreements and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements, which are signed by representatives of member governments :fol.9–10 and ratified by their parliaments. Most of the issues that the WTO focuses on derive from previous trade negotiations, especially from the Uruguay Round (1986–1994)
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International Monetary Fund
The INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes , it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system . It now plays a central role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises. Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016 , the fund had SDR 477 billion (about $668 billion)
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World Bank
The WORLD BANK is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital programs . It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA). The World Bank
World Bank
is a component of the WORLD BANK GROUP . The World Bank's stated official goal is the reduction of poverty . However, according to its Articles of Agreement, all its decisions must be guided by a commitment to the promotion of foreign investment and international trade and to the facilitation of capital investment
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Migrant Workers
A "MIGRANT WORKER" is a person who either migrates within their home country or outside of it in order to pursue work such as seasonal work . Migrant workers
Migrant workers
do usually not intend to stay permanently in the country or region they work in. Migrant workers
Migrant workers
who work outside of their home country may also be called foreign workers or expatriates . A destinction between foreign and migrant workers is that foreign workers are often either sent or invited to work outside they home country, or have acquired a job before they left their home country, whereas migrant workers often leave their home country without having a specific job at hand
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Justice
JUSTICE is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. The concept of justice differs in every culture . An early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato
Plato
in his work The Republic. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice issues from God. In the 17th century, theorists like John Locke
John Locke
argued for the theory of natural law . Thinkers in the social contract tradition argued that justice is derived from the mutual agreement of everyone concerned. In the 19th century, utilitarian thinkers including John Stuart Mill argued that justice is what has the best consequences. Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, and what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians argued that justice can only exist within the coordinates of equality
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Latin America
LATIN AMERICA is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken. The term originated in the French government in the mid-19th century as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas
Americas
( Haiti
Haiti
, French Guiana
French Guiana
, Martinique
Martinique
, Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
, Saint Martin , Saint Barthélemy
Saint Barthélemy
) along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed. It is therefore broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America . The term excludes French Canada
Canada
and modern French Louisiana
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Asia
Metropolitan areas of Asia
Asia
List of cities in Asia List * Bangkok
Bangkok

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